Classification of Crops: Agriculture, Horticulture and Agro-forestry Plant-Crops

Classification of Crops Classification of Hgricultural and Horticultural Crops are based on different factors eg. climate and family. This classification is different from biological classification of crop. There are thousands of economically important crops.

Classification Of Crops

(A). Classification Based on Group

  • Agricultural crops.
  • Horticulture crops.
  • Agro-forestry plant crops.

Agricultural Plant-crops

Agricultural crops include– Rice, wheat, millets, pulses, oilseeds etc.

Rice field

Tabl 01– Crops of agriculture crops.

S. N. NameSc. Name
1.MilletsDifferent spp., eg. – Finger millet, Kodo millet etc.
2.Oil seeds Different spp., eg. – Soybean, peanut, rapeseed etc.

Horticultural Plant-crops

Horticultural crop includes– Mango, citrus, apple, peach, plum, flowers, vegetables etc.


Rosa indica

Agro-forestry Plant-crops

Agro-forestry plant-crops are equally important to forestry and agriculture.

Acacia (Babul)

(B). Classification Based on Climate

  • Tropical crops.
  • Subtropical crops.
  • Temperate crops.

Tropical Crops

Tropical crop can tolerate high temperature. These plant-crops require hot and humid weather for flowering and fruiting.

Example– Rice, coconut etc.

Sub Tropical Crops

Sub Tropical plant-crops are similar to tropical crops. Crops require long dry spells and clean weather.

Example– Rice, pulses, millets, lychee etc.

Temperate Crops

Temperate crops loves relatively low temperature.

Example– Apple, plum, peach, winter wheat etc.

Classification Based on Season

These crops are known as seasonal crops. Both flowering and fruiting are completed within 4 months.

  • Rainy season crops
  • Winter season crops
  • Summer crops

Rainy Season Crops

Agronomically, it is known as Kharif crops. Kharif season starts with rainy season. In India it starts from June-July with the onset of Mansoon.

Example– Rice, maize, pulses, peanut etc.

Winter Season Crops

Another name for winter season crop is Rabi crop. It starts with winter season from October.

Example– Wheat, maize, potato etc.

Summer Crops

This is also called Zaid crops. These can tolerate high temperature. Starts from March-April.

Example– Cuc_mber, water melon, maize, Summer rice etc.

Classification Based on Family

Poaceae– Family Poaceae is also known as gramineae. This includes grass crops.

Table 02. Plant-crops of family Poaceae.

S. N. NameSc. Name
1.RiceOryza sativa
2.WheatTrituc_m spp.
3.BambooBambusa spp.
4.Doob grassCynodon dactylon

Malvaceae– Family malvaceae is one of the most economically important agronomical group of crop.

Table 03. Plant-crops of family malvaceae.

S. N. NameSc. Name
1.CottonGossypium spp.
2.JuteCorchorus spp.
3.OkraAbelmoschus esculentus

Fabaceae– The family is also known as leguminoceae. These crops are known to fix nitrogen in soil. Nitrogen fixing nodules are found on roots.

Table 03. Plant-crops of family fabaceae.

S. N. NameSc. Name
1.Red gramCajanus cajan
2.Black gramVigna mungo
3.ChickpeaCicer erietinum
4.PeaPisum sativum

Classification Based on Life Cycle

  • Seasonal crops
  • Annual crops
  • Perennial

Seasonal– The life cycle of seasonal crop is completed within 4 months.

Annual crops– Flowering and fruiting in annual crop is completed in a year. Annual crop can take more than 2 season to complete its life cycle. Some seasonal crops like brinjal and chili can be annual if not uprooted.

Example– Seed producing onion and cauliflower etc.

Perennial– Perennial crops take more than a year for flowering and fruiting. First or few years are taken for vegetative growth. They can bear flower and fruits for many years.

Example– Edge, hedge, fruit trees, cotton, lemon grass, Doob grass etc.

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