Biogas: Low Cost Production| गोबर गैस संयंत्र: गोबर गैस उत्पादन

Biogas Unit Fixed Dome

SUBJECT: Production of Biogas. Procedure of Production of Biogas. Simple Method of Biogas Production. Structure of Biogas Unit.


2. Types of Biogas Unit
3.Importance of Biogas
5.Procedure of Production of Biogas
6.Indigeneous Low cost Technology
7.Uses and Application



Biogas is flammable, gaseous source of energy. It is produced using agricultural waste and farm by-products e. g., rotten vegetables, tender vegetative parts e.g., tender stem and leaves, Cow dung (major component), and much quantity of water.

It is an eco-friendly farm product. Being an effortless and efficient way of production of biogas and organic manure (biogas slurry), it is an very useful farming activity which can be turned into a profitable farming business. Biomass is the ultimate source of biogas.

Biomass– biomass is plant matters and farm animal’s by-product.

Composition of Biogas

Biogas is mixture of various chemicals. Composition of biogas is as follows:

  • Methane- 45-70 %
  • Carbon Mono-oxide.
  • Carbon Dioxide- 45%
  • Hydrogen Sulfide.

Types of Biogas Unit

  1. Fixed type.
  2. Floating type.

Importance of Biogas


Biogas is the non-exhaustible source of energy i.e., renewable energy.

All sources of conventional energy, for example- coal, petroleum etc., are exhaustible. The consumption rate of these energy sources is increasing every year rapidly. Process of formation of coal, diesel etc., takes very long time, while the rate consumption is too fast around the whole world.

World needs to find the alternatives of exhaustible energy sources. Biogas is a type of renewable source of energy which can replace conventional energy sources in some extent. The other sources of renewable energy are:

  • Solar energy.
  • Wind energy.
  • Tidal energy.
  • Geothermal energy.


  • Easy to produce– production of this important gas doesn’t need extra technical knowledge. An armature person or farmer can easily produce biogas following some basic steps.
  • Low Cost– production of biogas require very low investment. Major investment is construction of biogas unit which is one time investment.
  • Eco-friendly– biogas is an eco-friendly gas. It can be used for different purpose without affecting the climate. Burning of biogas doesn’t left any lethal residue.
  • Requires less Surface Area– production structures require less surface area. More gas can be produced from very less area.
  • Recycling Agri Waste– agri wastes are used for the production of biogas. Remaining bio-slurry can be used as farm yard manure.
  • Low chance of blast– the chances of gas cylinder blast is lower than the traditional gas cylinders.


  • Potential Business Idea– it can be turned into a profitable business if done in commercial scale.
  • No Need to Pay for Expensive Gas– non-recycle gases can be replaced with the biogas for daily uses in kitchen. Hence, extra cost can be reduced.
  • Double Production– after gas, use of bio slurry can also reduce the extra cost of using commercial gases.

Procedure of Production of Biogas

Required Materials

  • Waste Materials- sources of waste materials used in biogas unit are:
    • Agriculture farm.
    • Horticulture farm.
  • Cow Dung (major component)
    • Dairy farm.
    • Cow pasture.
    • Farmers.
    • Other milk producers.
  • Source of Water
    • Borewell.
    • Well.
    • Other sources.

Required Structure

Fig. 01. Floating type dome

Two types of biogas units are made to prepare gas.

  1. Fixed dome– without gas holder.
  2. Rotating dome– with gas holder.

Biogas plant consists,

  1. Digester.
  2. Gas Holder.


  • Contains animal waste.
  • Constructed below ground level.
  • There is partition wall in the middle.
  • Inlet and outlet pipes are fitted in each partition according to figure (fig.- 01).

Gas Holder

  • Drum like structure.
  • Made of steel sheet.
  • It is fitted on the head of unit (fig.- 01).
  • It holds gas produced in chambers.

Step by Step Procedure

Procedure is as follows:

  1. Mix the cattle dung with water.
  2. The ratio is 4:5.
  3. Fill the chamber through inlet.
Fig: Inlet

Production of gas:

  1. Acid formers bacteria breaks up the materials into simple acids.
  2. Now another species of bacteria triggers the production of methane, carbon dioxide and other chemicals.

Indigenous Low Cost Technology

Making biogas unit or biogas plant is not very costly. The main costs are as follows:

  • Cement: per KG rate of cement is very high in developing and under developed countries. In India it costs from INR 250 to 280 per 50 kg bag.
  • Bricks: 1000 – 2000 bricks require to make a good capacity plant.
  • Iron dom: It is very costly.
  • Pipes.
  • Other costs.

**Only floating type gas-plants include costs from serial number 1-5.

**Fixed type gas-plant doesn’t need iron dome.

Commercial production units with more numbers of floating type gas plant need more investment than cemented structure.

The construction of low cost gas plant is the need of a big community of small biogas producers.

Fixed type dom is recommended for the production of low cost biogas.

Uses and Application

  1. As cooking gas– biogas can be used in cooking as source of heating. I can be filled in gas cylinder or the pipe and regulator can directly be connected to production unit. For direct connection seek help from any professional worker.
  2. Petroleum (in vehicles)– It can be used to run diesel engine. Although the efficiency of biogas as fuel in diesel engine is lower than the traditionally used fuel.
  3. Light– biogas can be converted into light with the help of bio lamps.
  4. Manure– Bio slurry contains three basic plant nutrients e. g., nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. It is very good option of fertilizer.

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