Branches of Agriculture and Horticulture


Branches of Agriculture and Horticulture


Agriculture is a major subject in a PG degree program offered by agriculture universities. The other major subjects are Horticulture, Agriculture Engineering and Agroforestry.

All three subjects are included as major and minor subject in B. Sc. Agriculture and M. Sc. Agriculture (UG and PG) Degree Program.

Scientific study and the cultivation and management of economically important minor and major crops are studied and practiced by the students, researchers and farmers under the branches of agriculture.

Branches of agriculture are as follows:

  • Agronomy.
  • Agriculture Economics.
  • Agriculture Engineering (Faculty).
  • Agro Forestry (Faculty).
  • Agriculture Meteorology (Faculty).
  • Animal Husbandry (Faculty).
  • Entomology.
  • Plant Breeding.
  • Horticulture (Faculty).
  • Plant Physiology.
  • Soil Science.
  • Plant Pathology.

Branches of Horticulture

Horticulture is a separate faculty from agriculture. Formerly it was a part of agriculture in the syllabus of many state agriculture universities.

The other major subjects are Pomology or Fruit Science, Olericulture of Vegetable Science and Floriculture. All three subjects are included as major subject in B. Sc. Horticulture and M. Sc. Horticulture.

Scientific study, cultivation, management and marketing of different ornamental, vegetable, medicinal and fruit plants are the major activity under different branches of horticulture.

Branches of Horticulture Are as Follows:

  • Pomology.
  • Olericulture.
  • Floriculture.
  • Post Harvest Technology.

Explanation: Branches of Agriculture


Image: Field Crops

Agronomy is a very important branch of agriculture. Agronomy is related with scientific cultivation, management, harvesting and marketing of field crops.

Cereals like rice and wheat are major staple food of the world. Field crop includes following crops:

Kharif Crop (Rainy Season)

  • Rice.
  • Pigeon pea.
  • Black gram.
  • Green gram.
  • Maize

Rabi Crop (Winter Season)

  • Wheat.
  • Cheack pea.
  • Horse gram.

Basic Steps in Agronomy

  1. Field preparation.
  2. Sowing.
  3. Manuring.
  4. Weeding.
  5. Irrigation.
  6. Plant protection.
  7. Harvesting.
  8. Storage and Marketing.

Agriculture Economics

Economic study of agriculture and horticulture, role of agriculture and horticulture in country’s economy or impact in GDP, is Agriculture Economics.

Analysis of market, public demand and supply, production and marketing are some basic subjects in agriculture economics.

Agriculture Engineering

Agriculture engineering is a faculty of agriculture university. It is included in agriculture as an applied science/technology.

Study of technologies such as development of advance irrigation system, making tillage equipments, study of agriculture farm machineries, all are topics of agriculture engineering.


Agroforestry is a branch of agriculture in which selected forest plants are planted on the bunds between to fields. List of agroforestry plants:

  1. Teak.
  2. Bamboo.
  3. Subabul.
  4. Acacia.
  5. Eucalyptus.
  6. Karanja.

Agriculture Meteorology

It is the study of local climate which affect field crops. Agriculture crops are classified according to season. These are as follows:

  1. Kharif.
  2. Rabi.
  3. Zaid.

Major topics and weather parameters studied under meteorology are:

  1. Rain.
  2. Temperature.
  3. Wind.
  4. Storm.

Animal Husbandry

It is a faculty of agriculture university. It deals with the study of rearing and production from farm animals.

Educational: Students have to qualify PET after 12th.

Farming: Rearing of cow, goat and poultry. Production of milk, chicken and eggs.


Image: Insects of red gream

Plant protection is major aspect in crop management. It is major subject and important branch in agriculture. Study of pest life-cycle, their behavior and management is very important.


Horticulture itself is a major faculty. It has three faculties, pomology, olericulture and floriculture. Horticulture offers B. Sc., and M. Sc.

Plant Breeding

It is the branch related with the plant scientists.

Plant Pathology

Image: From top left 1. canker of citrus. 2. Wilt in brinjal. 3. Gumosis of citrus. 4. Tikka disease of groundnut.

The faculty is related both with lab and field research works.

Plant Physiology

Is is a minor subject and less important branch during academic years.

Soil Science

Soul testing is essential before plant showing. It is faculty of soul physiology.

Explanation: Branches of Horticulture


Image: From top left 1. Apple ber. 2. Dwarf coconut. 3. Gooseberry. 4. Litchi. 5. Cashewnut.
  1. It is a major branch of horticulture.
  2. It is study of cultivation and management fruit plants.
  3. B. Sc. Ag. is required for M. Sc. in Pomology.


Image: From top 1. Cauliflower. 2. Chili.
  1. It is study of vegetable crops.
  2. B. Sc. Ag is required.

Floriculture and Landscape Architect

Image: From top left 1. Marigold. 2, 3 and 4. Hybrid rose.
  1. Cultivation of ornamental flowers and foliages.

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