Cashewnut: Propagation and Cultivation, Processing, Research Work

SUBJECT: Scientific Cultivation of Cashewnut. Propagation in Chashewnut. Processing of Cashwenut. Post Harvest Technology in Cashewnut. Research Works Related to Cashewnut.

Introduction

Fig 01. Cashew plant

Cashewnut also known as Caju (spelled Kaju in Hindi) is a tropical and sub-tropical evergreen plant. The nut plant is grown commercially for its kernel which has great demand in local local market. It also has great demand in international market.

Cashewnut is a horticultural fruit-plant. It is a fast growing plant which can withstand low water availability and can survive well in hard soil. Mango is an another commercial fruit plant from the same family.

General Information:

English nameCashewnut
Hindi nameCaju, kaju (काजू)
Scientific nameAnacardium accidental
FamilyAnacardiaceae
Tree typeEver green
Flower typeIndeterminate, polygamonoecious
Flowering inJanuary – April
Fruit typeDrupe
Fruiting inApril – May
OriginSouth America- Brazil
HabitatWild and cultivated

Distribution

Cashewnut is distributed in the countries of all tropical and subtropical continents. Major continents are- Asia, Africa and South America. Cashewnut growing minor continents are North America and Australia. Cashewnut growing countries are as follows:

Major Continents

Asia

  1. India.
  2. Bangladesh.
  3. Pakistan.
  4. Sri Lanka.

Africa

  1. Kenya.
  2. Tanzania.
  3. Madagascar.

North America

Brazil

Minor Continents

Plants are grown for ornamental purpose. Limited cashewnut grown regions are:

North America

  1. USA
    • Southernmost Florida.
    • Hawaii.
    • Southernmost Puerto Rico.

Australia

Some regions of North Queensland and Basin of Wildman river.

Cultivation

India is known for the highest production of cashewnut. It is cultivated in nearly 1 million hectare in India. Cashewnut producing states in India are as follows:

  1. Andhra Pradesh.
  2. Madhya Pradesh.
  3. Chhattisgarh.
  4. Odisha.
  5. Karnataka.
  6. Maharashtra.
  7. Kerala.
  8. Uttar Pradesh.
  9. West Bengal.

Cultivation Practice: Crop Management Practice

Also Read: Mango Cultivation

Required Materials and Method

Required Materials

Seed, water for irrigation, pesticides for pest control, farm machineries.

VarietiesSpecifications
BPP-1Hybrid (Tree no. 1 x Tree no. 273)
Vengurla-ISelection from Ansur.
Ullal-1Selection from Taliparam, Kerala.
Anakkayam-1Short flowering period.

Other varieties: Vengurla- 2, Vengurla- 3, Vengurla- 4, Vengurla- 5, Ullal- 2, BPP- 2, BPP- 3, BPP- 4, BPP- 5, BPP- 6.

Method of Cultivation

Climate: Cashewnut is mainly a sub-tropical plant. So the cultivation is restricted to warm-climate-regions. It can be grown up successfully under sub climatic condition where summer temperature ranges from 39 to 45+ ℃. Cultivation is difficult in temperate regions where frost and snowfall are predominant. Annual rainfall of 100 -300 cm is sufficient for cashew cultivation. It can withstand the blows from hot summer air which is known as ‘Loo’ in India.

Preparation of Plants: Plants can be prepared by seed and other methods.

  • Preparation of plants by seed: Seed should be down in commercial planting bags. It should be irrigated.
  • Preparation of plants by vegetative propagation: Side grafting is the most common way of grafting in cashewnut.

Soil and preparation: It can be cultivated in wide range of soil. It can be consider as hard plant. Cashewnut can be seen grown on rocky land. Altitude between 600 – 900 m is ideal.

Soil preparation is done during summer season. Medium sized pits are dug for plantation. Size of pit should be 50 cm x 50 cm x 50, 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm or 75 cm x 74 cm x 75 cm. The dug soil should be mixed with well rotten FYM.

Plantation:

1 to 1.5 feet plants are transplanted from nursery to field. It is done in rainy season. Plantation can be done in any season if irrigation is available.

Planting distance:

  1. 7m x 7m.
  2. 9m x 9m.

Irrigation: Irrigation is required at each fortnight in winter season. Irrigation at every weak is required for little plants in summer. There is no irrigation needed in rainy season.

Fertilizer: Yearly Schedule

YearFYM (kg)N (gm)P (gm)K (gm)
1st year10804050
2nd year2015080100
3rd year25200120150
4th year35250150200
5th year50450200250

Insect and management:

InsectDamageManagement
Stem borerDamages stem bark. Prune the affected twigs. Apply insecticides like carbaryl and clorpyriphos.
LeafminorForms tunnels inside the leaf viens.Use NSKE solution made from neem.
Tea mosquito bugDamages by sucking tender portion.Apply carbaryl or chlorpyriphos.
Root borerMake holes in roots.Use systemic insecticides.

Disease and management

DiseaseSymptomsMamagement
AnthracnoseLittle branches are affected. Affected parts turn into black.Remove affected portion. Use biradari mixture.
Pink spotsCircular and irregular patches appears on leaf surface.Bordeaux mixture. Copper fungicides.
Fig 02: Anthracnose

Flowering

Fruiting start after 3 years. Commercial age of fruit bearing is 5-6 years. Generally, flowering starts from January and continues till March april.

Flowering in cashewnut:

PhaseFlower Type
FirstMale flowers 19-100%
SecondMixed, 0-60% male flowers, 0-20% hermaphrodite flowers
Second male phase0-6.7% male flowers
————–Source: See reference 2

Fruiting

Fruiting starts in April in India.

Fruits have two parts. One is apple and second is nut. The whole apple is edible while the kernel from nut is edible. Fruit ripens 2 months after fruiting.

Harvesting

Har eating is done of fully ripe apple. It is done in may. Kernels are separated from the nuts using nut decorticator. Yield is 15-25 kg from mature tree of 15-20 years.

Also Read: Litchi Cultivation

Processsing

ProductsUsed part
Cashew JamCashew apple
Cashew JellyCashew apple
Cashew JuiceCashew apple
Cashew powderCashew apple
Cashew CandyCashew apple
Cashew apple pickleCashew apple
Sweat: Kaju katliKernel
BuiscuitKernel

In sweats: Kaju is included in sweat like kaju katli, Biscuits and cake.

Research Works

  1. “Tanzanian Cashew Nut Supply Response Under Market Reforms” by. Is based on the study of marketing behavior of cashewnut in Tanzania. (Reference 1).

Cashewnut in Points

  1. Anacardium pumilum is used as dwarf rootstock in kaju. Gllining is related with fruit collection from field.
  2. India is largest producer of cashew.
  3. Pruning is done during late rainy season.
  4. Sensitive to water logging condition.
  5. Normal dryer is best for drying kernels.
  6. India export more than 60% cashew in the world.

Explanation of Related Words

Tropical Climate

Tropical climate is warm-climatic-condition in a particular region. World is divided according to the climate. Temperature of a Tropical region is 18 ℃ and above. Most of Asian, African countries are tropical countries

Sub-tropical

Sub-tropical regions experience both winter and summer conditions. Most of Indian states are subtropical.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is cashewnut ideal for meadow orcharding?

Ans.- Yes, with good management practice.

What is the market price of cashewnut?

Ans.- Market price of nut is few dollars. Per kg rate of kernel is 800-1000 INR.

Where can I get plants for free?

Ans.- Anyone can get free plants from the department of horticulture and department of forest. Documents are required.

REFERENCES:

  1. Mfumu G. R. (2013). Tanzanian Cashew Nut Supply Response Under Market Reforms. University of Nairobi.
  2. Bal J. S. (2003). Fruit Growing. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.




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