Procedure of Cultivation of White Button Mushroom


Procedure of Production/Cultivation of White Button Mushroom

White button mushroom is also known as European Mushroom. This species of mushroom is the most liked species of mushroom in the world. This species of mushroom, in India, is grown under controlled environment. The cultivation of white button mushroom can be done in whole year under the controlled environment.

The cultivation of this species of mushroom takes longer duration than the other species of mushrooms. The cultivation period of white button mushroom is around 120 days.

Compost is the most important thing for the Cultivation of White Mushroom.


S. N.Heading
1.Brief Introduction: White Button Mushroom
2.Procedure of Production/Cultivation (Method and Materials)
3.Required Temperature and Spreading of Spawn….
4.Applying Casing……
5.Formation of Fruiting Body….
10.Things to Remember

1. Brief Introduction: White Button Mushroom

TypeMushroom, edible mushroom, basidiomycete mushroom 
Common NameWhite Button Mushroom
Scientific NameAgaricus bisporus
CultivationAll over the world
Cultivation TechnologySpecial Compost

2. Procedure of Production/Cultivation (Method and Materials)

2.1 Making Compost

2.1.1 Required Materials (Combination 01)

* 250 gm of wheat or paddy straw (10-15 cm long).

* 25 gm of wheat of paddy chaff.

* Ammonium Sulfate: 4 kg.

* Urea: 3 kg.

* Muriate of Potash: 4 kg.

* Gypsum: 20 kg.

* Malathion: 40 kg.

Also Read: Cultivation of Paddy Straw Mushroom

2.1.2 Required Materials (Combination 02)

* Wheat Straw: 250 gm or (400 kg paddy straw + 6 kg cotton seed)

* Ammonium Sulfate or CAN: 9 kg

* Super Phosphate: 9 kg.

* Urea: 4 kg.

* Wheat husk: 30 kg.

* Gypsum: 12 kg.

* Calcium Carbonate: 10 kg.

2.1.3 Required Materials (Combination 03)

* Wheat Straw: 300 kg.

* Ammonium Sulfate or CAN: 9 kg.

2.2 Methods

Method 01: Long Method of compost making (preparation)

Method 02: Short Method or Pasteurization Method

2.2.1 Filling Compost…..

* Use 4-5 tray to fill it with compost. Treat it using 2% of formalin.

* Fill these tray with 6 inch (thick layer) of compost.

* These trays should be placed on the top of each other.

* First tray should be 20 c.m. above from the ground level.

* The distance between the two trays should be 25 c.m.

* The gape between the top-tray and ceiling should be at least 100 cm. 

2.2.2 Mixing Spawn…..

Treat the compost using 500 ppm of bavistin before spawning.

The spawning can be done in following ways…

Surface Spawning

Spawns are spread over the surface of compost in tray. Now it is covered with 2 cm thick layer of compost.

Two Layer Spawning

The method is adopted in low temperature zones. In this method tray is filled half with compost. Now the surface of compost is spawned; now, again it is filled with compost and the second layer of spawn is applied. Finally, it is covered with a thin layer of compost.

Whole Point Spawning

Spawns are mixed thoroughly with whole compost in tray.

Point to Point Spawning

* Trays are filled with compost.

* 2 inch deep holes are made at the distance of 5 cm.

* The hole(s) should be spawned separately.

The spawned trays are covered with old papers. Don’t forget to treat the paper with 2% of formalin.

It should be irrigated with fine spray of water, frequently.

3. Required Temperature and Spreading of Spawn….

Optimum temperature: 22 – 26 ℃ is optimum range of temperature, required for the production of white button mushroom. The temperature below 22 ℃ causes slow growing (appearance) of mycelium, while the temperature above 26℃ triggers the growth of other harmful fungi and diseases. The required temperature should be maintained using artificial means.

The white mycelium resembling white cotton will cover the surface of compost in 14-15 days.

4. Applying Casing……

Formula for Casing-

Garden Soil + Cow Dung (1:1)

* Disinfect the casing materials.

* Disinfection should be done using steam.

* When it is ready, it should be applied to cover mycelium over the compost. 3 – 5 cm thin layer of casing should be applied.

5. Formation of Fruiting Body….

* Temperature: It should be 14 – 18 ℃.

* Humidity: It should be 80 – 85%.

* It takes 15 – 20 days, pinheads to appear after casing.

* Now, it takes 8 – 10 days, pinheads to mature.

6. Harvesting…..


* Mushroom Cap: The radius of mushroom cap is 3 – 4 cm.

* The length of mushroom cap should be two times more than the stipe (mushroom stem).

* 5 – 6 harvesting is possible from a single crop.

Long Method

8 – 10 kg of mushroom/square meter.

Pasteurized Method

16 – 20 kg of mushroom/square meter.

7. Storage…..

Room Temperature

It can be stored up to 24 hours.


It can be stored up to 1 – 2 weeks.

8. Pathogens

8.1 Inkcap

8.2 Mushroom Fly

9. Uses……..


Vitamin Powder

Various Dishes….

10. Things to Remember

* Do not use straw/husk which is older more than a year.

* The straw/husk should not be soaked by rain water.

* The length of the straw shouldn’t be more than 8-10 cm. 8-10 is ideal length.

* Don’t use short straw.

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 01. Why Composting is Necessary?

1. Straw becomes soft.

2. It becomes porous.

3. Ammonia, polysaccharides and other beneficial chemicals are released from organic matters by composting.

4. Stage 01 (Composting): Available nutrients are used by the bacteria, immediately.

5. Stage 02 (Composting): Temperature is maintained due to stage 01.

6. Biomass is formed.

7. The water retention capacity of compost is increased.

8. Nitrogen is converted in its permanent organic state.

Question 02. What are the required qualities of a good compost?


1. Colour: It should be dark brown.

2. Ammonia: It should be absent. No smell of ammonia is required.

3. pH: The pH value of the compost should be neutral. It shouldn’t be go beyond 8.

4. Moisture: The moisture in compost should be 68%. It is ideal percentage of moisture in compost.

5. Nitrogen: The percentage of nitrogen should be 2.2 – 2.5 (2.2 – 2.5%).

Question 03. Which is the best time for spawning white button mushroom?

Ans.: It is mid of September to mid of March.

Question 04. What are some important varieties of white button mushroom?

Ans.: MS 39, NCS 100, NCS 101, NCS 102, P. 1, S 11, S 76, S 791. These are varieties of A. bisporus.

A. bitorquis: K 26, K 32, NCB 26 , NCB 32.

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