Cultivation of Easily Grown Oyster Mushroom in Paddy/Millets/Wheat Straw and Saw Dust: Low Cost Production Technology

Complete procedure of cultivation of sister mushroom cost and benefits
Oyster Mushroom Production Unit

Sub.- Cultivation and Production Technology of Oyster Mushroom. Benefits in Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom. Oyster Mushroom Spawn and Price (Online Purchasing). Oyster mushroom Pickle and Price (Online Purchasing). Mushroom Powder and Price (Online Purchasing).


INDEX

S. No. Topic
1.Introduction
1.1What is oyster mushroom?
1.2Botanical description
1.3Uses and Importance
1.4Area and production
1.5Temperature
2.Procedure of Cultivation and Production
2.1Required materials
2.2Procedure (With Paddy Straw)
2.2.1Cutting
2.2.2Soaking in water
2.2.3Hot water treatment
2.2.4Drying
2.2.5Spawning
3.After Care
4.Harvesting
5.Marketing
6.Post Harvest Technology: Value Addition
7.References

1. Introduction

White Oyster Variety- Florida
Common nameOyster Mushroom
Scientific namePluerotus spp.
OrderAgaricales
Family Pluerotaceae

1.1 What is oyster mushroom?

Oyster mushroom is a fruiting body of the fungus Pluerotus. The class of this fungus is agaricomycetes and the division is basidiomycota. The spore-producing organ ( fruiting body) of the fungus looks like an oyster’s shell. It is another important species of mushroom after Paddy Straw Mushroom which is cultivated using paddy straw with very low invest.

There are different species of oyster mushroom. It can be seen growing during rainy season on the surface of rotten wooden and other substances.

Table 02: Different species of oyster mushroom.

S. No. Species Remarks
1.Pluerotus ostreatusThe pearl oyster mushroom, larger than Indian oyster.
2.Pluerotus pulmonariusIndian oyster mushroom, lung oyster, smaller than pearl oyster mushroom.
3.Pluerotus eryngiiKnown as King Oyster. It is a Large sized oyster mushroom.

1.2 Botanical description

  • Mycellium– Mycellium of oyster mushroom grow well in rotten substnces. It is a thread like structure and white in colour.
  • Fruiting body– Colour is white, creamy, pink and brown in some species. The cap is generally oyster shaped that’s why it is known as oyster mushroom. Upper surface of the fruiting body is fleshy and smooth.
  • Gills– Gills are the lower surface of the fruiting body. Gills are very soft, white and creamy in colour. The space between the two gills is very narrow.
  • Stipe– The length of stipe is short.
  • Ring– Ring is absent.
  • Volva– Volta is also absent.

1.3 Uses and Importance

  1. Easy to cultivate– Oyster mushroom is very easy to cultivate. Any farmer can grow this species of mushroom in his first attempt. The only constraint is climate. Although it can be cultivated throughout the year altering the micro climate of the farm.
  2. Rate of success– Every one can grow this so the rate of success is high. At least one training is required to understand the complete procedure.
  3. It can become major source of food for the millions of people- In developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc., where population is very high, the commercial cultivation of oyster mushroom becomes very important to meet the food demand of the country.
  4. Commercial cultivation is very important to get high income.

Medicinal Uses and Value:

It has medicinal properties just like other species of mushroom. It is used to control many human diseases. Oyster mushroom is beneficial in the following human health condition and diseases :

  • Diabetes.
  • Cholesterol.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Hyper-tension.
  • Heart patient.
  • Anti-cancer.
  • Anti-inflammatory.
  • Anti-viral (Lavi, I. et al., 2010).

It contains 24-35% protein, 19 essential amino acids, vitamins, very little fat and sugar (Mshandete, A. M., 2011).

1.4 Area and Production

Oyster mushroom is mainly grown in Asian, African and European countries.

Table 03: Area and Production (Source: National Horticulture Board).

Country Production in tonnes
China1 million tonnes
India1500 tonnes

Other mushroom growing countries are Korea, Japan, Italy, Taiwan, Thailand and Philippines.

1.5 Temperature

It can be grown in temperature ranging from 20 – 35 °C. However it can be cultivated above 40 °C if humidity is maintained. Very cold and high temperature without humidity in the environment is not an ideal condition to grow this species.

2. Procedure of Cultivation and Production

2.1 Required Materials

  • Paddy/Millets/Wheat straw/Saw dust- Remaining part of paddy crop after detaching rice from the plant. Same procedure with other crop.
  • Mushroom spawn– Contains live and active micro-organism of oyster mushroom. Price of mushroom spawn is different. Good quality spawn costs 400 – 500 INR/kg.
  • Formalin– It is formaldehyde. It is applied in water soaked paddy straw to kill the harmful micro-organisms.
  • Bedding structure/shaded place– Bedding structure should be created inside the mushroom shed.
  • Polythene bags– Polyethylene and polypropylene bags are used. Perforated bag should be used. Polythene bag should be transparent.
  • Water and water tank– A cement tank of 10 x 10 feet should be made. It is adjustable.
A cement water tank

2.2 Procedure (with paddy straw)

  • Cutting.
  • Soaking in water.
  • Hot water treatment.
  • Drying.
  • Spawning.

2.2.1 Cutting

  • Cutting should be done in the evening.
  • Select Fresh paddy straw.
  • Avoid rotten and fungus infected material.
  • Cut the long straw into small pieces. Length of pieces can be kept very short i.e., 1.5 cm or even half of cm. Normal size should be 1.5-2.0 cm.

2.2.2 Soaking in Water

Soaking in water
  • Fill the cement tank with water.
  • Mix the formalin @2% with water in water tank.
  • Stuff the paddy straw in water tank.
  • Place some heavy things on straw surface so it can not flow above the water.
  • It should be kept for overnight.

2.2.3 Hot Water Treatment

It is performed if chemical treatment is not available.

  • Boil the water.
  • Open the outlet of water tank at morning time.
  • Let whole water flow outside the tank.

2.2.4 Drying

  • Keep the overnight saturated pieces of paddy straw under any shade.
  • Keep it dry.
  • Moisture should be 70%
  • With remaining 70% moisture it should feel like sticky if touched with hand.

2.2.5 Spawning

There are two methods of spawning the mushroom seed,

  1. Layer method.
  2. Mixing method.

Layer Method

Spawnned bag with layer method

Spawning is done in different layer in polythene bags.

Mixing Method

  • Mix the spawn in whole straw after shade drying.
  • Fill it in polythene bags.

3. After Care

Healthy Growth of Mycellium

After spawning, care and management is necessary till harvesting.

  • Irrigation– Irrigation is required to avoid the drying of mushroom bed i.e., paddy straw.
  • Pin head drying– Pin head should be protected from the direct sunlight.
  • Disease– Diseases can cause serious damage.

Table 04: Diseases of oyster mushroom.

S. No. Name of diseaseAppearance Management
1.Fungal diseaseSoft rot.Spray Bavistin
2.Bacterial diseaseBlotches, unwanted spots, bacterial rot. Spray Chlorinated water
3.Non biologicalPin head dryingProtect from sunlight

4. Harvesting

Harvesting is done after the pin head develops into a fruiting body. Harvest should be done before releasing of mushroom spores. Yield is 50 kg per 100 kg straw used.

5. Marketing

Marketing in villages and small town is difficult. Contract farming is important. Market should be find out before commercial farming. Mushroom farm near any city is very profitable.

6. Post Harvest Technology: value addition

  1. Mushroom Pickle– Commercial packages come in different size. It cost anywhere from 50 – 1000+ INR depending on quality.
  2. Mushroom Powder– It is processed product and may cost 1000+ INR or less depending on quality.
  3. Mushroom Cookies.

7. References

  1. Lavi I., Lavison D., Peri I., Hadar Y. and Schwartz B. (2010). British Journal of Nutrition. Pp., 103-402.
  2. MShandete A. M. (2011). J. Res. Bio. Sci.1. Pp., 35-44.
  3. http://nhb.gov.in/report_files/oyster_Mushroom/OYSTER%20MUSHROOM.htm.




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