Cultivation of Paddy Straw Mushroom in Simple Way: Low Cost Mushroom Production

Procedure for paddy straw mushroom cultivation
Paddy Straw Mushroom (Volvoriella volvaceae

Paddy Straw Mushroom Cultivation – Paddy Straw Mushroom or Paira Mushroom is grown in paddy straw. The Procedure of growing this mushroom is followed by some simple steps. Anyone Can Grow Paddy Straw Mushroom following these steps. Here you will know about the Complete Procedure of Cultivation Practice of Paddy Straw Mushroom and Total Cost/Invest in Paddy Straw Mushroom Cultivation Project.

This article is going to cover-

  • Outdoor and indoor cultivation of paddy straw mushroom.
  • Step by Step Procedure in Paddy Straw mushroom cultivation .
  • Technology in paddy straw mushroom cultivation.

Paddy Straw Mushroom: Introduction

Fully Grown Paddy Straw Mushroom

Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom is a very profitable activity. It requires low investment. Commercial production can be started investing only few thousand which is 5 to 10 k or less. It is rich in protein. Market demand is always high.

Scientific Name

Volvariella volvacea is the scientific name for paddy straw mushroom. Family is pluteaceae. Other names are as follows:

  • Paira mushroom.
  • Paira futu (पैरा फुटू), in some regions.


All rice growing countries. Mainly, Asian and African countries. Asian countries such as India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh Sri Lanka, Indonesia etc., are the major country where paddy straw mushroom is commercially cultivated. In India it grown in Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh etc.


Hot and warm weather with adequate humidity is favorable for mycelium growth. Temperature between 26- 32 degree Celsius, and humidity between 60 -70% is required. Production and cultivation during winter season is not recommended. Growth and development of fungus is inhibited by the low temperature. Although it can be cultivated in controlled environment. Rainy season is best and ideal condition for the production of paddy straw mushroom regions like subcontinent territories.

Growing Media

The mycelium of Volvoriella volvaceae grows naturally on paddy straw. Paddy straw is the best material for the cultivation of Volvoriella.

Site for Paddy Straw Mushroom

  1. Open condition.
  2. Close condition.

Paddy Straw Mushroom Cultivation in Open Condition

A spider’s web like growth of light brown and white mycelium can be seen on the surface of heap of paddy straw during rainy season in open field condition. Mushroom can be grown in the shade of tree and large buildings in open situation. Big tree like mango provides more shady area.

Paddy Straw Mushroom Cultivation in Closed Condition

Closed thatched house or any structure should be,

  • Well ventilated.
  • Low cost.

Production of mushroom inside a closed structure is beneficial during adverse weather conditions.

Read: Cultivation Practice For African Marigold.

Procedure of Paddy Straw Mushroom Cultivation

  • Required material.
  • Preparation of mushroom bed.
  • Saturation and degermination of mushroom bed.
  • Spawning of mushroom bed.
  • Covering mushroom bed.
  • Care and maintenance.
  • Harvesting.

Also Read: Cultivation/Production of Oyster Mushroom: [Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom is very easy and less expensive]

Materials Required for Paddy Straw Mushroom

Paddy straw: Paddy straw is the most important thing in cultivation of Volvoriella volvaceae. It is a by-product of rice plant. It is known as Paira (पैरा) or Puaal (पुआल) in Hindi. Rice and straw are separated from each other after the harvesting of field crop. Straw of all paddy sp. can be used for bedding material.

Mushroom Spawn: ‘Spawn’ or ‘Mushroom Seed’ is the first requirement of whole process. Spawn of mushroom should always be purchased from a trusted manufacturer. It can also be purchased online through different online platform like Amazon and Indiamart.

Mushroom Spawn and Pulse meal

Care during purchasing spawn,

  • Always purchase healthy spawn with white mycelium on it.
  • Discard the spawn with unwanted colour e.g., dark brown, black and green.
  • Discard open seal pack.
  • Purchase recently prepared spawn.

Formalin and Calcium Carbonate: Both are used in degermination ofpaddy straw. Two percent of formalin is used in water tank. Formalin can be purchased online in less quantity for non-professional use.

Transparent Polythene Sheet: Polythene sheets are used for covering spawned mushroom beds. It can be purchased from any local vendor.

Water Tank: The size and number of water tank can be increased according to need. Standard size tank of 12×4×2 feet should be preferred. A permanent tank is constructed using cement and bricks.

Source of Water: Always use clean water.

  • Well.
  • Borewell.
  • River’s fresh water.
  • Other source of fresh water.

Preparation of Mushroom Bed

‘Mushroom bed’ works a bedding material for spawn and mushroom. It is a thick layer of paddy straw. Step by step procedure for preparation of mushroom bed is as follow:

  • Start the procedure at evening.
  • Cut the paddy straw (dried rice stalk) into 1 – 1.5 feet long pieces.
  • Make 1-2 feet thick layer in square shape.
  • Wrap and tie the straw to make it a bundle.

Saturation and de-germination of Mushroom Bed

  • Place all the bundles inside water tank.
  • 3/4 part of water tank should be stuffed with bundles.
  • Fill the tank with fresh and clean water.
  • The level of water should always be kept over from last layer of bundle.
  • Pour 2% of formalin in water tank.
  • Let paddy straw be saturated overnight. 12-13 hrs.

Spawning of Mushroom Beds

Spawning the upper layer
  • Open the outlet of water tank in early morning after 12 hrs.
  • Let all water flow outside.
  • Now, take all bundles out of tank.
  • Place all the bundles at equal-distance of 1-1.5 feet on clean and raised structure.
Vertical structure: Very lowcost
  • Untie the bundles and start spawning as shown in picture.
  • Place some meal of chickpea or other pulse. It provides nutrition for mycelium and mushroom.

Other Methods are:

  1. Spawning using circle method.
  2. Spawning using square method.

Covering Mushroom Beds

  • Now cover the mushroom bed completely using polythene sheet.
  • It will create micro environment for the proper growth of mycelium.
  • Cover for 4-7 days.
  • It will take 4 days to grow mycelium in favorable condition.
Beds covered with polythene at a farmer’s farmhouse

Care and Maintenance

  • Uncover the mushroom bed after 4-7 days.
  • Maintain the required level of humidity without damaging mycelium growth.
  • Use hazara (water can for irrigation) to spray water.
  • Apply pest control measures against rat.


Mushroom can be harvested after 4-7 days of mycelium growth. It should be harvested while fruiting body is still round shaped. 8-10 kg of yield can be achieved from 1 kg of spawn.

Cost and Benefit for Small Scale Paddy Straw Mushroom Production

Cost (Convert it Into Dollar)

  1. Cost of 1 kg seed = 150 – 200 INR.
  2. Cost of 2 labor = 150 – 200 INR per day.
  3. Cost of 1 tractor paddy straw = 1500 – 2000 INR.


Success in the cultivation of paddy straw mushroom depends on scale of farming and proper management practice. One should always attain any training program related with the production of paddy straw mushroom for its commercial scale production and benefit.

8-10 kg mushroom can be produced from 1 kg of mushroom spawn/seed.

  • Cost of 1 kg mushroom = 350-400 INR (convert it into $).
  • Profit margin will always high.

Note: Cost and price can vary region to region.

Points for Precautions during Cultivation/Production

  • Don’t contaminate the span.
  • Try to keep moist the bundle of paddy straw.
  • Apply fresh air for proper growth and development of mycelium.
  • Use grain free paddy straw to avoid rat attack.
  • Use water cans for light watering.
  • Do not apply water directly over developed mycelium; it can destroy the fungus body.
  • Growing media should be free from harmful micro-organism.

-By Harish Manik (Guided by Dr. Gaurav Sharma, Associate Professor, Jhansi)



Developing Pinheads
Developed Mushroom

Last Updated: 28-03-2021.

Also Read

Oyster Mushroom Cultivation Practice

Top 10 Farming business Ideas


  1. i am the new comer , so i would like to start mushroom farm could you help me on this. where i should take training . i am basically from Puri( Odisha)

  2. What to do if pinhead is not coming ?
    Polythene wrapping should including the lower side of bed or only covering. When I remove the polythene from bed plz ans. Plz give ur contact details. Awaiting your reply.

    1. Follow these steps

      1. No need to cover lower side.

      2. Cover it from three sides i.e., both the lateral sides and top of the mushroom bed.

      3. Mycelium will take around one week to grow properly.

      4. Now you should uncover the bed for few minutes to expose the mycelium to fresh air. It should be done daily.

      5. Now cover the bed again.

      6. Pinhead will appear after  3 – 4 days.

      7. Cover should be removed completely when pinheads start growing fast.

      8. Don’t let it (bed) to dry.

      9. Always use fine spray water cane.

      10. Don’t damage the mycelium.

      Try to purchase best quality mushroom spawn.

      Always remember temperature plays important role.

      1. Thank you sir for your valuable information. I am following it but pins are getting damaged with yellow colour at the size of 2days by sprinkling and if I remove completely the polythene pins are getting dry in spite of watering. Plz suggest can I water the bed at the earlier stage of pinhead. I hope again a positive response from you.

    1. You should use sodium hypochlorite solution, salt, lime or gypsum and lime mix.

      Insect-pests control, such as mite is necessary.

      Treat the media with formalin before during preparation.

  3. Hellow harsit i am prince frome chattishgarh mujhe 50 kg per day production chaiye uske regarding bat krna h pleas can you give me yoyr cantact no pleas

  4. Sir
    Mushroom bed saturation ke baad agar formalin water ko dusre plant me use karna Sahu hoga?!
    Aur kitne litre ke Paani me kitna formalin use karna hai ?!

  5. App ne paddy straw dip karne k time (Pour 2% of formalin in water tank.) ye jo line likhe hai, actually ye formalin kya he koi chemical ya koi powder jo mujhe common market main easily mil jaega kindly batae.

      1. Ohkk thankyou😊 …. Kay aap mere ko apna email adress provide kare ge …. Aap ke website pe ko mail registared hai uspe mail delever nai ho ra

  6. Sir mera mushrum bed me 18 दिन ho gaye lekin kavak jaal नहीं बन paya hai please rely sir

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *