Cultivation Practice for African Marigold – It is a scientific package of complete procedure for cultivation of African Marigold. This article is based on the research work of author. The research entitled ‘Evaluation of Marigold Genotypes for Flower and Xanthopyll yield…..’ was conducted during 2014-15.
|1.||Introduction: African Marigold|
|2.||Cultivation Practice for African Marigold|
|3.||Explanation: Related words|
1. Introduction: African Marigold
|Common name||Marigold, गेंदा (Genda in Hindi)|
|Scientific name||Tagetes spp.|
African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) belongs to the family Asteraceae and is one of the most important commercially exploited flower crops. Genus Tagetes consists of 33 species, of which Tagetes erecta L. is commonly grown for their exquisite blooms. The name Tagetes was given after ‘Tages’, a demigod known for his beauty. It is a native of Central and South America, especially Mexico, from where it spread to different parts of the world during the early 16th century.
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Marigold is broadly divided into two groups, viz., African marigold and French marigold (Tagetes patula Linn). The former generally grows tall and is known as tall marigold and latter is short called as dwarf marigold. As compared to other flowering annuals, marigold is a hardy plant with height of more than 150 cm and a life span of four and half months.
It is adaptable to various conditions of soil and climate with a fairly good keeping quality. It is commercially propagated by seeds. The flowers of this species are generally large in size with wide spectrum of attractive colours ranging from yellow to orange.
Marigold is a potential flower crop that is gaining popularity throughout India on account of its easy cultivation and wide adaptability. Its habit of free and early flowering, bright shades of colours, shape and size with long blooming period has attracted the attention of flower growers. It has great demand for loose flowers, garlands, garden display and decorative purposes at various religious and social functions.
It is grown in a herbaceous border and is also ideal as a filler for newly planted shrubberies. For landscaping purpose, it is grown in flower beds, borders and also as potted plants.
2. Cultivation Practice for African Marigold
2.1 Preparation of Field:
Field preparation is done by ploughing the field with mould board plough once, followed by leveling and weeding manually. Harrowing is done to break the clods followed by criss-cross ploughing by cultivator, then the field is pulverized by rotavator. During harrowing, well rotten FYM should be incorporated in the soil.
2.2 Raising of Seedling Marigold:
Seeds are sown on raised beds. Line sowing of seeds are done at 5 cm spacing. The seed beds are covered with a mixture of garden soil and coarse sand. The nursery beds are covered by the paddy straw after sowing. Initially, watering is done with watering cane at alternate days. The seeds germinated within 3-4 days of sowing and thereafter mulch cover is removed. The seedlings are hardened by withdrawing the watering 2-3 days before lifting the seedlings.
2.3 Transplanting and Gap Filling:
Seedlings Marigold seedlings are transplanted after 25-30 days of sowing. Light irrigation is given just after planting with the help of hazara (rose can). Marigold seedlings are generally soft, tender and susceptible to damping off. Hence, gap filling is done after two weeks of transplanting in case of mortality.
2.4 Fertilizers and Manuring:
Well decomposed FYM @ 20 tonnes per hectare should be applied at the time of land preparation. The recommended dose of 200:200:200 kg per hectare NPK is applied in two splits i.e. 50 per cent ‘N’ and full dose of P and K at the time of transplanting and remaining 50 per cent ‘N’ is applied 40th day after transplanting in the form of urea.
FYM can ne replaced with vermicompost which is easy to prepare.
2.5 Irrrigation and Weeding:
Minimum four irrigation are applied during entire crop season. Soil is kept moist after monsoon and heavy irrigation should avoided to check moisture stress. Manual weeding (4 times) should be done during the entire cropping period at an interval of 15-20 days.
Pinching by removal of the terminal portion for new growth of the plants is done in 30 days after transplanting.
Flowering starts in a month after pinching. Watering should be avoided during flowering period. Open weather is favorable for flowering.
2.8 Plant Protection:
Cut worms, Helicoverpa armigera, mealy bug and thrips are some major insects pest of marigold. Apply spinosad 45 SC @ 0.75ml/litre for cut worm and Helicoverpa. For mealy bug spray Prophenophos @ 2-3ml/l. Thrips can be effectively controlled by spraying Fipronil @ 1.5-2ml/l. Red spider Mite: Spray Abamectin.
In disease leaf spot can be controlled by the foliar application of Hexaconazole @1ml/litre or Mancozeb @ 1.5g/litre.
Harvesting is done 55-60 days after transplanting once at the interval of 3-4 days. Harvesting is done by hand picking.
The average yield of African marigold ranges between 25-30 ton per hectare according to climate. It is fresh-flower yield.
–Research content by Harish Manik
FYM or Farm Yard Manure is a type of organic manure which is prepared from agri-waste like crop residue and cow dung.
3.2 Organic Manure
Organic manure is chemical free manure. Example- FYM, vermicompost etc.
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