False Smt Of Rice – This post will Answer the following Questions:
First- What is false smt of rice?
Second- What is the importance of false smt of rice?
Third– causes false smt of rice?
Fourth- What are the symptoms of false smt of rice?
Fifth- What are the prevention measures adopted against false smt of rice.
How to control false smt of rice?
INDEX 01 : TABLE
|01.||Biological Introduction, False Smt of Rice|
INDEX 02: IMAGE
|1.||Image 01: False smt in rice field|
|2.||Image 02: False smt in rice field|
INDEX 03: CONTENTS
|1.||INTRODUCTION : False Smt of Rice|
|2.||Area of Expansion|
|4.||Suitable Climate and Condition|
|5.||Symptoms of The Disease|
|7.||Management of The Disease|
|8.||Frequently Asked Questions|
|10.||Multiple Choice Question|
|11.||Video: False smt of rice|
Table 01: Biological Introduction, false Smt of Rice
|English Name||False smt of rice|
|Hindi Name||Genhu ka kandua rog|
|Scientific Name of Causal Organism||Ustilaginoidea viren|
|Family of Causal Organism||Incertae sedis|
1. Introduction : False Smt of Rice
1.1 What is False Smt of Rice?
False smt of rice is a crop disease. It is a fungal disease caused by Ustilaginoidea viren in rice plant. Formation of smt ball is the characteristic symptom of the disease.
1.2 Type of Occurrence
This is a specific disease of rice. It occurs only in rice field. The occurrence of disease can be seen easily during rainy season.
This is periodic disease of rice crop.
1.2.1 Occurrence in Rainy Season
Appearance of the disease can be seen in the later stage of rainy season during grain filling stage.
The attack is restricted to one field or can be spread to a particular region.
1.2.2 Occurrence in Rabi Season Rice
Occurrence is rare in rabi season crop (Authenticate this).
1.2.3 Occurrence in Summer Rice
Occurrence in summer rice is also rare (Authenticate this).
2. Area of Expansion
The disease attack rice crop in all rice growing areas. In extensive rice growing countries like India, Philippines, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and other South Asian counties it can be seen in severe form. Apart from Asian countries, it is found in American and African rice growing regions.
The outbreak of the disease is common where rice is grown as sole crop.
This disease can be sean easily in lowland rice area than upland rice area.
Also the disease occurs more in high rainfall area than the low rainfall area.
3. Economic Importance
False smt is not as destructive as bacterial blight and other diseases of rice. But, it can cause significance loss in its severe form. The quality of infected grains decrease greatly.
Farmers face problem selling infected grains.
The amount of loss can range from 1 – more than 50%.
Sometimes it becomes the cause of yearly loss due to regular appearance on the same field.
4. Suitable Climate and Condition
4.1 Most Suitable Season
The most suitable season is rainy season. Heavy rainfall is an ideal condition.
Temperature plays important role for the development of disease. Temperature range is 27 – 32 ℃.
High humanity is a favorable condition. High humidity couples with required temperature is an ideal situation.
5. Symptoms of The Disease
5.1 How to identify the disease?
Identification of the disease is very easy. Smt ball looks like a small ball made by using cow dung.
The colour is black when it is seen from a good distance.
5.2 What are some unique symptoms?
Colour– Greenish velvet.
Size– Average diameter is 0.80 cm.
6. Disease Cycle
6.1 From where it starts?
The primary causal organism is found inside the infected seed. There is much possibility of outbreak of the disease, when these seeds are shown in a particular area.
It is a seed as well as soil born disease.
6.2 Where does casual organism rest
The spores of causal organism remains in grains and soil. Affected grains contain the spores of Ustilaginoidea viren. It remains inside the grain waiting for next year.
6.3 How does it spread
Infected grains contain spores of causal organism.
These grains are used as seeding material (mixed with disease free grains).
Disease spread to new plants.
Again, the harvested grains from new plants are mixed unknowingly with disease free grains and the cycle continues.
Another reason is falling of conidia in crop filed during crop harvest. This is the reason of ‘Why disease spreads in other fields’.
7. Management of The Disease
Follow the following steps to prevent the reappearance of the disease:
- Don’t sow contaminated seeds: Contaminated seed contains the causal organism. Always sow disease free seed.
- Try to treat the seeds before sowing: Seed can be treated before sowing. The chemical used in seed treatment is mercuric calories.
- Carefully remove the affected grains from standing crop: Start this practice whenever you observe the symptoms. Keep care while removing.
- Remove all the infected grains before harvesting: The affected grains should be removed first. It will help in clean harvesting.
- Affected grains should not fall from the plants in field: The fallen balls cause the further expansion of the micro-organism through different vectors. It can be water or other insects.
- Avoid mixing affected grains with disease free grains: Mixing of affected grains with disease free grains is a cause of failure of disease management.
7.2 Control Measures
Cooler fungicides such as cooler oxycloride can be used for the control of disease.
8. Frequently Asked Questions
Question- 1. Can we use hot water treatment against false smt of rice?
Ans.- No. It shouldn’t be used. It can kill the the seed.
Question- 2. How to control false smt without using chemicals?
Ans.- Don’t us susceptible varieties. Always use resistant variety. All cultivated rice have some degree of resistance against false smut for rice.
Rice cultivated during Jun-July to Nov-Dec. is known as Aman rice.
Rice cultivated during Jan-Feb to April-May is known as Boro rice.
Conidium is a spore body.
It is based on crop pattern in which a single crop is sown in a specific region.
10. Multiple Choice Question
Question- #1. Colour of grain balls is..?
Question- #2. False smt is a …… disease?