Economic Importance of Relay Cropping (Utera/Paira Kheti): List of Crops and Crop Model

Rice + Lathyrus: Relay Cropping Model

Concept of Relay Cropping (Paira/Utera Kheti)

The concept of Relay Cropping is based on the Olympic Game which is known as Relay Race. In Relay Race;

(A). A team includes 4 players from each participant country.

(B). A flag is the centre object of the game.

(1). First player starts to run from starting point.

(2). Second player standing at a fixed distance receives flag from the first player.

(3). Third player receives the flag from the second player and,

(4). The fourth player receives it from the third player and continues run…….


2.Favorable Condition
4.Similar Practices
5.Explanation of Post Related Words

1. Introduction

IMAGE: Lathyrus as Relay Crop in Rice Field
TypeCropping System
Common NameRelay Cropping
Other Names (English and Hindi)Utera (उतेरा खेती) in M.P. and C.G., Paira (पैरा खेती) in Bihar and West Bengal, Overlapping Cropping
OccurrenceLow land agriculture areas
SeasonRabi and Zaid
Number of Crop IncludedTwo or More
SituationFirst crop is in reproductive stage (not in harvesting stage)

The Relay Cropping or Paira Crop Cultivation is also known as Utera Crop Cultivation (उतेरा फसल) in which seeds of second crop are shown in the same field before the harvesting of first crop. This method is practiced by the farmers in rural areas. The perfect example of relaycrop cultivation is the cultivation of rice and lathyrus on the same filed. It is a specific crop pattern of particular region..

2. Favorable Condition

Utera cultivation is practiced in lowland areas where moisture remains in soil for a long period. Availability of water in soil can be described in following ways:

(1). Water above soil surface

In lowland agriculture areas water level remains above soil surface for a log period. These areas are ideal for उतेरा crop cultivation.

(a). Saturated Soil: Soil is in saturated condition. The available moisture is sufficient for the standing and next crop to be shown before the harvesting of first crop.

(2). Rainy Areas:

(a). Heavy rainfall- These areas are ideal for utera cultivation.

(b). Low rainfall- Not suitable for utera cultivation.


3. Importance

3.1 Use of land

The same piece of land is used for the cultivation of two crops. Generally, lowland areas are used for the cultivation of single crop e.g., rice. Vegetable crops and other species of crops fail to survive in this situation. Selected species of crop can be grown along with rice in lowland areas.

3.2 Production

Per hectare production is increased due to double crop cultivation. Production of main crop is higher than the next crop. Production from the second crop is bonus for farmer.

3.3 Pest management

We can understand utera cultivation as crop rotation practice. Mono-culture crop cultivation practice increases the possibility of attack of same species of pest repeatedly. Growing two crops in same field decreases pest attack.

3.4 Fertilizer Management

Growing of lathyrus in rice field is beneficial for rice. Being legume crop, lathyrus fixes nitrogen in soil. So, the quantity of nitrogen required for rice field is reduced during fertilizer application.

4. Crop Model

(1). Rice + Lathyrus (Utera/Paira)

(2). Maize + Potato

(3). Potato + Radish

4.1 Rice and Lathyrus

IMAGE: Lathyrus in Rice Field (Paddy Have Been Harvested)

Paddy is shown as kharif season crop and lathyrus is sown as rabi season crop. The seeds of lathyrus are scattered in the field of paddy (in grain filling standing crop). Sowing month is November-December.

4.2 Maize and Potato

Maize is sown as kharif crop. Potato is down as rabi crop. Rows for potato are formed between the rows of standing maize crop. The tuber starts to germinate before the harvesting of whole maize crop.

4.3 Potato and Radish

The crop model is extension of Maize + Potato cropping in which radish is taken as 3rd crop in relay cropping.

4.4 Other Examples

Mung (green gram) + Maize

Maize + Wheat

Potato + Wheat

ALSO READ: How To Make Mushroom Spawn at Home/Farm

5. Similar Practices

5.1 Sequence Cropping

Two or more crops are grown in the same piece of land just after the harvesting of first crop. First crop is harvested, and second crop is sown just after a few minutes.

6. Explanation of Post Related Words

6.1 Utera

Utera means 2nd, second in number just after first one..

6.2 Paira

Paira means straw.


(1). What Is CHAMPS (चैंप्स) And How To Apply Manually? Step By Step Procedure To Fill Application Form

(2).2 Dimensional Crop Cultivation: 2D Crop Cultivation

(3). Drip Irrigation System Installation: Governmental Scheme and Subsidy

(4). Mango Flower and Fruit Drop: Reason and Control Measures.



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