Concept of Relay Cropping (Paira/Utera Kheti)
The concept of Relay Cropping is based on the Olympic Game which is known as Relay Race. In Relay Race;
(A). A team includes 4 players from each participant country.
(B). A flag is the centre object of the game.
(1). First player starts to run from starting point.
(2). Second player standing at a fixed distance receives flag from the first player.
(3). Third player receives the flag from the second player and,
(4). The fourth player receives it from the third player and continues run…….
|5.||Explanation of Post Related Words|
|Common Name||Relay Cropping|
|Other Names (English and Hindi)||Utera (उतेरा खेती) in M.P. and C.G., Paira (पैरा खेती) in Bihar and West Bengal, Overlapping Cropping|
|Occurrence||Low land agriculture areas|
|Season||Rabi and Zaid|
|Number of Crop Included||Two or More|
|Situation||First crop is in reproductive stage (not in harvesting stage)|
The Relay Cropping or Paira Crop Cultivation is also known as Utera Crop Cultivation (उतेरा फसल) in which seeds of second crop are shown in the same field before the harvesting of first crop. This method is practiced by the farmers in rural areas. The perfect example of relaycrop cultivation is the cultivation of rice and lathyrus on the same filed. It is a specific crop pattern of particular region..
2. Favorable Condition
Utera cultivation is practiced in lowland areas where moisture remains in soil for a long period. Availability of water in soil can be described in following ways:
(1). Water above soil surface
In lowland agriculture areas water level remains above soil surface for a log period. These areas are ideal for उतेरा crop cultivation.
(a). Saturated Soil: Soil is in saturated condition. The available moisture is sufficient for the standing and next crop to be shown before the harvesting of first crop.
(2). Rainy Areas:
(a). Heavy rainfall- These areas are ideal for utera cultivation.
(b). Low rainfall- Not suitable for utera cultivation.
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3.1 Use of land
The same piece of land is used for the cultivation of two crops. Generally, lowland areas are used for the cultivation of single crop e.g., rice. Vegetable crops and other species of crops fail to survive in this situation. Selected species of crop can be grown along with rice in lowland areas.
Per hectare production is increased due to double crop cultivation. Production of main crop is higher than the next crop. Production from the second crop is bonus for farmer.
3.3 Pest management
We can understand utera cultivation as crop rotation practice. Mono-culture crop cultivation practice increases the possibility of attack of same species of pest repeatedly. Growing two crops in same field decreases pest attack.
3.4 Fertilizer Management
Growing of lathyrus in rice field is beneficial for rice. Being legume crop, lathyrus fixes nitrogen in soil. So, the quantity of nitrogen required for rice field is reduced during fertilizer application.
4. Crop Model
(1). Rice + Lathyrus (Utera/Paira)
(2). Maize + Potato
(3). Potato + Radish
4.1 Rice and Lathyrus
Paddy is shown as kharif season crop and lathyrus is sown as rabi season crop. The seeds of lathyrus are scattered in the field of paddy (in grain filling standing crop). Sowing month is November-December.
4.2 Maize and Potato
Maize is sown as kharif crop. Potato is down as rabi crop. Rows for potato are formed between the rows of standing maize crop. The tuber starts to germinate before the harvesting of whole maize crop.
4.3 Potato and Radish
The crop model is extension of Maize + Potato cropping in which radish is taken as 3rd crop in relay cropping.
4.4 Other Examples
Mung (green gram) + Maize
Maize + Wheat
Potato + Wheat
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5. Similar Practices
5.1 Sequence Cropping
Two or more crops are grown in the same piece of land just after the harvesting of first crop. First crop is harvested, and second crop is sown just after a few minutes.
6. Explanation of Post Related Words
Utera means 2nd, second in number just after first one..
Paira means straw.
-BY SHASYADHARA AGRICULTURE