List of Major Fruit-Crops

list-of-major-fruit-crop
Major Fruit Crops

Main Article: List of Major Fruit Crops

The Major Fruit-crops or Major Fruits (Translation>“मुख्य फल वाले फसल”) are a category of fruit-crops. The other important group of fruit-crops is ‘minor fruits or minor fruit-crops‘.

These fruits can easily be identified by it’s use, range of acceptance and scientific classification. The most important criteria, for a fruit to be called as major fruit, is its scientific classification.

Just like the minor fruits, the shape and size, and the availability etc., are not the necessary factors while defining the term major fruit-crops.

The major fruit crops grown in India definitely play the very important role in Indian economy. The major fruit, for example- mango, is cultivated in large extent in India. And, it is also known as the ‘King of Fruit’.

Also Read: Side Grafting in Mango

Index: List of Major Fruit-Crops

CONTENTS
1. Criteria to be called as major fruit.
2. Importance.
3. Characteristic of major fruit-crops.
4. List of Major Fruit Crops.
5. Scientific Description of Major Fruit Crops.

(1). Criteria to be called as major fruit

  • Cultivation.
  • Occurrence.
  • Scientific classification.

Cultivation

Generally, major fruits are included in the category of traditionally grown fruit crops, e.g., mango is a traditionally grown or cultivated fruit crops in India.

These fruit plants are grown in commercial scale in commercial orchards. Many orchard over hundreds of fruit trees can be seen in India. Orchards of mango, Orchards of citrus, Orchards of ber,
Orchards of banana,
Orchards of papaya, etc., are very common.

Occurrence

These plant-trees are rarely seen in wild. Although, wild species of major fruits are common in wild places. For example- Wild species of mango (M. sylvatica) is common in Tropical Indian Forests. Also, the Wild Cashewnut is common in tropical and subtropical jungles of India.

Scientific Classification

It is the most important criteria. The ‘scientific classification of fruit-crops’ classifies fruits into two major groups. The scientific classification of fruit-crops is as follows:

  • Major fruits.
  • Minor fruits.

Example of major fruits

Tropical and subtropical major fruits– Mango, banana, papaya etc.

Temperate zone Manor fruits– Apple, peach, pear etc.

Example of minor fruits

Tropical and subtropical minor fruits– Aonla, custard apple, litchi etc.

Temperate zone minor fruits– Avocado.

(2). Importance (in reference to use)

  • Major Source of Vitamins and Other Micronutrients
  • Ornamental use.

Major source of vitamins and other micronutrients

All minor fruits are major source some very important micronutrient. Mango and papaya are amount the richest source of vitamin ‘A’.

Ornamental use

Many plants are used as ornamental plants in home, kitchen and public garden etc. Many dwarf varieties of fruit plant are used as ornamental bonsai.

(3). Characteristic (in reference to cultivation)

  • Extensive cultivation.
  • Improved varieties.
  • Less resistant to pests.

Extensive cultivation

Generally, these are grown in a large area. For example – mango is grown in each tropical and subtropical regions of India.

Improved varieties

Improved varieties means – the fruit qualities are enhanced.

Less resistant to pests

These are less resistant against the various species of pest than their wild forms.

(4). List of Major Fruit Crops

List of Tropical Fruits

S. N.Fruits
1.Mango
2.Banana
3.Papaya
4.Guava
5.Cashewnut
6.Sapota

List of Sub-Tropical Fruits

S. N.Fruits
1.Citrus
2.Grapes
3.Ber
4.Pomegranate

List of Temperate Fruits

S. N.Fruits
1.Apple
2.Pear
3.Peach
4.Plum

List of Humid Zone Tropical Fruits

S. N.Fruits
1.Pineapple

Also Read: ‘T’ budding in ber

(5). Scientific Description of Minor Fruit Crops (List of Major Fruit-crops)

Also Read: Pomology Mock Test

Tropical Fruits

FruitS. N.FamilyOriginVarieties
1. MangoMangifera indica L.AnacardiaceaeIndo-BurmaLangra, dusehari, fajri, alphonso etc.
2. BananaMusa sppMusacreaeIndo-MalayanPoovan, dwarf cavendish, harichhal, gros michel etc.
3. PapayaCarica papaya L.CaricaceaeTropical AmericaPusa delicious, honey dew, pusa nanha, 786 etc.
4. GuavaPsidium guajava LinnMyrtaceaeTropical AmericaAllahabad safeda, sardar, apple colour, seedless etc.
5. CashewnutAnacardium occidentle Linn.AnacardiaceaeBrazil.BPP series, Vengurla series, Ullal series etc.
6. SapotaManilkara achras Mill.SapotaceaeSouth Mexico, Central AmericaKalipatti, cricket ball, chhatri, etc.

Sub-Tropical Fruits

FruitS. N.Family OriginVarieties
*1. CitrusCitrus spp.RutaceaeRegions of India and ChinaVarieties from various spp. of citrus.
2. GrapesVitis vinifera L.VitaceaeArmenia, MediterraneanPerlette, thompson seedless, anab-e-shahi etc.
3. BerZizyphus mauritiana Lamk.RhamnaceaeChina, IndiaUmran, kaithli, apple ber, Gola etc.
4. PomegranatePunica granstum LPunicaceaeIranGanesh, alandi, dholka etc.
‘*’: Some species are areconsidered as minor fruit.

Temperate Fruit

FruitS. N. FamilyOriginVarieties
1. AppleMalus domestica BorkhRosaceaeS-W AsiaRedbdelicious, red spur, richard etc.
2. Pearpyrus spp.RosaceaeNorthern Hemisphere of Old WorldBartlett, flemish beauty, clapp’s favorite.
3. PeachPrunus persicaRosaceaePersiaAlexander, elberta, partap etc.
4. PlumPrunus spp.RosaceaeIran (Ken albaba)Varieties from different spp. of commercial grown plums.
Plum is major fruit of J & K and Himachal Pradesh

Tropical Zone Humid Fruit

FruitS. N..FamilyOriginVarieties
1. PineappleAnanas comosus L. MerrBromeliaceaeBrazilKew, queen, mauritius etc.

Last Updated: 06-04-2021


Reference:

  1. Bal J. S. (2013). Fruit Growing. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.

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