Main Article: List of Major Fruit Crops
The Major Fruit-crops or Major Fruits (Translation>“मुख्य फल वाले फसल”) are a category of fruit-crops. The other important group of fruit-crops is ‘minor fruits or minor fruit-crops‘.
These fruits can easily be identified by it’s use, range of acceptance and scientific classification. The most important criteria, for a fruit to be called as major fruit, is its scientific classification.
Just like the minor fruits, the shape and size, and the availability etc., are not the necessary factors while defining the term major fruit-crops.
The major fruit crops grown in India definitely play the very important role in Indian economy. The major fruit, for example- mango, is cultivated in large extent in India. And, it is also known as the ‘King of Fruit’.
Also Read: Side Grafting in Mango
Index: List of Major Fruit-Crops
|1. Criteria to be called as major fruit.|
|3. Characteristic of major fruit-crops.|
|4. List of Major Fruit Crops.|
|5. Scientific Description of Major Fruit Crops.|
(1). Criteria to be called as major fruit
- Scientific classification.
Generally, major fruits are included in the category of traditionally grown fruit crops, e.g., mango is a traditionally grown or cultivated fruit crops in India.
These fruit plants are grown in commercial scale in commercial orchards. Many orchard over hundreds of fruit trees can be seen in India. Orchards of mango, Orchards of citrus, Orchards of ber,
Orchards of banana,
Orchards of papaya, etc., are very common.
These plant-trees are rarely seen in wild. Although, wild species of major fruits are common in wild places. For example- Wild species of mango (M. sylvatica) is common in Tropical Indian Forests. Also, the Wild Cashewnut is common in tropical and subtropical jungles of India.
It is the most important criteria. The ‘scientific classification of fruit-crops’ classifies fruits into two major groups. The scientific classification of fruit-crops is as follows:
- Major fruits.
- Minor fruits.
Example of major fruits
Tropical and subtropical major fruits– Mango, banana, papaya etc.
Temperate zone Manor fruits– Apple, peach, pear etc.
Example of minor fruits
Tropical and subtropical minor fruits– Aonla, custard apple, litchi etc.
Temperate zone minor fruits– Avocado.
(2). Importance (in reference to use)
- Major Source of Vitamins and Other Micronutrients
- Ornamental use.
Major source of vitamins and other micronutrients
All minor fruits are major source some very important micronutrient. Mango and papaya are amount the richest source of vitamin ‘A’.
Many plants are used as ornamental plants in home, kitchen and public garden etc. Many dwarf varieties of fruit plant are used as ornamental bonsai.
(3). Characteristic (in reference to cultivation)
- Extensive cultivation.
- Improved varieties.
- Less resistant to pests.
Generally, these are grown in a large area. For example – mango is grown in each tropical and subtropical regions of India.
Improved varieties means – the fruit qualities are enhanced.
Less resistant to pests
These are less resistant against the various species of pest than their wild forms.
(4). List of Major Fruit Crops
List of Tropical Fruits
List of Sub-Tropical Fruits
List of Temperate Fruits
List of Humid Zone Tropical Fruits
Also Read: ‘T’ budding in ber
(5). Scientific Description of Minor Fruit Crops (List of Major Fruit-crops)
Also Read: Pomology Mock Test
|1. Mango||Mangifera indica L.||Anacardiaceae||Indo-Burma||Langra, dusehari, fajri, alphonso etc.|
|2. Banana||Musa spp||Musacreae||Indo-Malayan||Poovan, dwarf cavendish, harichhal, gros michel etc.|
|3. Papaya||Carica papaya L.||Caricaceae||Tropical America||Pusa delicious, honey dew, pusa nanha, 786 etc.|
|4. Guava||Psidium guajava Linn||Myrtaceae||Tropical America||Allahabad safeda, sardar, apple colour, seedless etc.|
|5. Cashewnut||Anacardium occidentle Linn.||Anacardiaceae||Brazil.||BPP series, Vengurla series, Ullal series etc.|
|6. Sapota||Manilkara achras Mill.||Sapotaceae||South Mexico, Central America||Kalipatti, cricket ball, chhatri, etc.|
|*1. Citrus||Citrus spp.||Rutaceae||Regions of India and China||Varieties from various spp. of citrus.|
|2. Grapes||Vitis vinifera L.||Vitaceae||Armenia, Mediterranean||Perlette, thompson seedless, anab-e-shahi etc.|
|3. Ber||Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.||Rhamnaceae||China, India||Umran, kaithli, apple ber, Gola etc.|
|4. Pomegranate||Punica granstum L||Punicaceae||Iran||Ganesh, alandi, dholka etc.|
|1. Apple||Malus domestica Borkh||Rosaceae||S-W Asia||Redbdelicious, red spur, richard etc.|
|2. Pear||pyrus spp.||Rosaceae||Northern Hemisphere of Old World||Bartlett, flemish beauty, clapp’s favorite.|
|3. Peach||Prunus persica||Rosaceae||Persia||Alexander, elberta, partap etc.|
|4. Plum||Prunus spp.||Rosaceae||Iran (Ken albaba)||Varieties from different spp. of commercial grown plums.|
Tropical Zone Humid Fruit
|1. Pineapple||Ananas comosus L. Merr||Bromeliaceae||Brazil||Kew, queen, mauritius etc.|
Last Updated: 06-04-2021
- Bal J. S. (2013). Fruit Growing. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.