Mango Flower and Fruit Drop: Reasons and Control Measures– How to Control Flower Drop in Mango? How to Control Fruit Drop in Mango? Problems in Mango Cultivation. Orchard Management Practice. Physiological Disorders in Mango.
|1.||Introduction: Mango Flower and Fruit Drop|
|2.||Mango Flower Drop|
|3.||Mango Fruit Drop|
|4.||Reasons (Flower and Fruit Drop)|
|5.||Control Measures: Management|
|6.||Explanation of Post Related Words|
|7.||Frequently Asked Questions|
1. Introduction: Mango Flower and Fruit Drop
Mango Flower Drop: Flower drop is a major problem during initial stage of flowering or flower bearing in mango orchard in mango trees (Mango Cultivation). Flower drop is a different problem form fruit drop.
1.1 Difference between flower drop and fruit drop
|S. No.||Flower Drop||Fruit Drop|
|1.||Flower drop occurs before and after fruiting.||Fruit drop occurs after complete flowering and fruiting.|
|2.||Dropped (fallen) flowers contain undeveloped embryo.||Developed embryo are present.|
|3.||Percentage of flower drop is high.||Percentage of fruit drop is lower than the flower drop.|
|4.||Significant flower drop occurs at later stage of flower development.||Significant fruit drop occurs at initial stage of fruit development.|
|5.||Economical loss is higher.||Economical loss is lesser.|
|1.||Major cause is the formation of abscission layer. Low carbohydrate is responsible for this.|
|2.||Both are caused by the biotic and abiotic factors.|
|3.||Controllable in some extent.|
The main part of a mango tree during fruiting season is panical. A mature mango tree can bear unlimited panicals in fruiting season. But, unfortunately few flowers develop into mature fruit. It is a very serious problem for mango growing farmers. “Most of the flowers falling down after full or at later stage of development. Only 0.1 per cent flower or even less develop into mature fruit” (See reference 01).
2. Mango Flower Drop
2.1.1 Light Flower Drop
This occurs during initial stage of the flowering. This is normal in all mango orchards. Cause are wind, temperature, rain, birds and sometime, insect. It is not possible to check this type of flower drop. The most common cause is infertile or the group of flowers which is not pollenized by the pollenizer insect.
2.1.2 Heavy Flower Drop
Heavy flower drop is a cause of heavy economical loss. The cause of heavy fruit drop can be a single factor for example- formation of abscission layer. Loss by heavy flower drop is sometime more than 90 to 99% (It is not an authentic data. It is based on our experiment.)
2.1.3 Time of Flower Drop
March and April. Light flower drop in march and heavy flower drop in April.
3. Mango Fruit Drop
Pin Head Drop
Post Setting Drop
3.1.1 Pin Head Drop
Underdeveloped fruits can be seen fallen in an orchard. This type of fruit drop is serous problem due to heavy loss in production.
3.1.2 Post Setting Drop
Post setting drop is mostly caused by the abiotic factors. It becomes a headache for the growers. Control is difficult.
3.1.3 May Drop
It is the final stage of fruit drop. May drop is due to unfavorable conditions such as bad weather. Chemical control is not effective. After May drop, fruit starts to ripe in many varieties.
4. Reasons (Flower and Fruit Drop)
4.1 Biotic Reasons (factors):
Insects: Insect-pests such as mango mealy bug, mango hoppers and red ants are major insect-pests of mango. Mango mealy bug sucks sap of panicle (tender portion of the panicle), which is a reason of drying up of panicle. Red ants weave their home using leaves which envelop the panicle. Mealy bug is an another sap sucking insect.
Birds: They cause normal loss.
4.2 Abiotic Reasons (factors)
Temperature: High temperature is harmful for newly emerged flowers. It supports the formation of abscission layer. New flowers dry up and fall from the tree. It cause significance loss in production.
Rain: Unwanted rains during flowering. Heavy rain cause serious damage. Rain can trigger mildew in panicals.
Hail storm: Hail storm damages panicals, severely.
Sand storm: A strong sand storm is strong enough to dislodge the flowers from the tree.
Wind: Very hot wind such as Loo is a cause of flower drop.
5. Control Measures: Management
5.1 Biological Management
5.2 Cultural Management Practice
Sanitary management practice should be applied in an orchard. Give adequate water per plant/tree using thala irrigation system.
5.3 Chemical Control Measures
2, 4-D is sprayed as a chemical control measure. 2, 4-D is a weedicide, but in low concentration it acts as a plant hormone. Applicable percentage is 2.
6. Explanation of Post Related Words
1. Physiological Disorders
Physiological disorders are the abnormalities in many species of plants in which a plant shows symptoms of a disease without the attack of a disease causing agent.
7. Frequently Asked Questions
Question 01. What are the other physiological disorders in mango?
Answer: Physiological disorders in mango are are- 1. Black tip. 2. Spongy tissue. 3. Mango malformation and, 4. Alternate bearing.
Question 02. What are the different diseases of a mango plant-tree?
Answer: 1. Powdery mildew. 2. Dieback (anthracnose). 3. Leaf blight. 4. Bacterial canker.
Question 03. What are the different insect-pests of a mango plant-tree?
Answer: 1. Hoppers (mango hoppers). 2. Mealy bug (mango mealy bug). 3. Fruit fly (mango fruit fly). 4. Stem borer (mango stem borer). 4. Caterpillar (bark eating caterpillar. 6. Scale insect (mango scale). 7. Red ants (demta in local language). 9. Shoot borer (mango shoot borer).
-BY SHASYADHARA AGRICULTURE
01. Bal, J. S. (1997). Fruit Growing. Second Edition (2006). Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi-110002.