Mango Plantation: Cultivation Practice and Orchard Management

Mango Plantation And Orchad Management

Mango Tree With Fruits

Introduction

S. N. Sc. NameOriginDistribution Remarks
1.Mangifera indica India-BurmaSub-continentCommon mango
2.Magifera sylvestica —-Wild mango

Botanical Description

Mango is a medium to big evergreen tree.

Leaf– Leaf surface is smooth, edges are sharp. Main vein or midrib originates from the base of the leaf. Many small veins are connected with main vien. The vacation is pinnate. The broad leaves are found in a group. Size of leaf varies according to varieties.

Flower– Mango plant starts to bloom in a year (grafted plant) and 7-8 years (seed plant). Flowers are arranged in cymose. Generally flowering starts from December to January. Male and female flowers are found in same mango tree. Male flowers are produced separately, or along with female flowers known as hermaphrodite.

Fruit– The fruit type of mango is drupe. Drupe is a fruit with exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp. Alternate bearing in mango is a common problem in many cultivars. In alternate bearing mango tree bears fruit after every 1 year. First year is taken for vegetative growth and the fruiting occurs in second year.

Cultivation Practice

Climate

Mango is a major fruit crop in sub tropical countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, western Asia as well as tropical countries like lychee. Climatic seasons as required by mango tree in South Asia are:

Rainy Season– Natural propagation through seed occurs during rainy season. Plant produces new branches and leaves. Heavy rainfall along with storm and ice parts causes serious damage to new plants and biennial varieties. Dry spell in rainy season increase mortality rate in recently transplanted small plants.

Winter Season– Winter should be rainless during most of the season. It is not susceptible to frost. During late winter when flowering starts, the eventual rainfall or bad weather can cause insect-pests attack and flower drop. The plant is active in all season and it can also be propagated during late winter. The ideal temperature is 16-25 degree celsius.

Summer Season– High temperature in sunmer season triggers fruit drop. Newly grafted small plants can be damaged severely by the direct sunlight. Temperature can go above 40 degree celsius during these months. Temperature below 35 degree celsius is an ideal condition.

Varieties

Various varieties have been developed in recent years.

S. N. Varieties Parent Remarks
1.AmrapaliDashehari * NeelumSuitable for middow orchading
2.MallikaNeelum * Dashehari Prolonged vase life.
3.RatnaNeelum * AlphonsoIt has spongy tissue
4.Sindhu seeRatna * AlphonsoConsidered as seedless variety.
5.Manjeera Rumani * NeelumRegular bearer
6.PKM1Chinnasuvarnarekha * NeelumRegular bearer
7.AmbikaAmrapali * Janardan PasandRegular bearer

Site Selection

  • Upland area should be selected. Marshland should be avoided.
  • Selected area should get ample amount of sunlight.
  • For orchad a place near main road and city is very important.
  • Medium heavy soil is better than the light soil. Sandy loam is very good.
  • Water drainage of the selected land should be very good.
  • A place near mine and briks kiln should be discarded.

Preparation of Site

Fencing– Selected field should be covered with fence. Iron/mesh wire is used along with iron angles. Poles are also made from cement, sand and rocks.

Digging pits– Pits of 1*1*1 m size are dug during the month of June. Thirty percent of dug soil, which is upper layer, is kept at the left side of the rim of pit while remaining 70 % soil is kept at right side at the time of digging.

Propagation

Commercial method of propagation in mango is Vineer Grafting. Other methods are In-arching, stone grafting. Root stocks are raised from mango seeds in rainy season. There are different methods developed for propagation of mango.

Plantation

Plantation is done in rainy season. At the time of plantation 70% soil which was dug previously is mixed with 10-15 kg of FYM. Grafted plants are placed in pits.

Pits are filled first with thirty percent soil (dug previously) then manure mixed 70% soil.

Spacing– 5*5, 6*6*, 7*7,…….., 10*10.

Methods of Planting

Saqure– Group of 4 plants.

Hexagonal– Group of six plants.

Intercultural Management Practice

Irrigation

Regular irrigation is required for new plants. Water should be applied once in a month during winter season while the action should be performed after every fortnight.

System of irrigation– Ring method and Drip system.

Weed Management

Weed management is necessary in new plants. Hand weeding is usefull.

Fertilizing

Fertilizer is applied for one year (Source: TNAU).

S. N. YearFertilizerQuantity (kg)
1.1-10 yearsN:P:K170:110:115 gm
2.After 10 yearsN:P:K1.7:1.1:1.5 kg

Follow these points to fertilize big trees:

  • Look at the canopy of tree.
  • Now according to the size of the periphery of canopy make a circle around the tree stem.
  • Circle around the tree should be equal to the circumference of canopy.
  • Left one diameter metre area from tree stem.
  • Start digging soil till the last point of circle up-to the depth of 1 feet.
  • Fill the pit with fertilizer and manure mixed with soil.

Plant Protection

Insects and Management

Mealy bug– Mealy bug is sap sucking insect. It sucks the sap of tender parts of tree. Use chlopyriphos or monochrotophos.

Stem borer– Site specific treatment is very effective.

Mango hopper– It is another sap sucking pest of mango. Management is same as mealy bug. Use of smoke is also very effective.

Diseases and Management

Anthracnose– It is caused by thd fungi. Carbendazim and Mancozeb should be applied.

Mango malformation- It is caused by the collaboration of various factors including bacteria and fungus.

Harvesting

Harvesting is done for:

  1. Unripe mango– For pickle.
  2. Ripen mango

Yield– yield depends on climate, management and most importantly, varieties.

Post Harvest

Storage– Harvested fruits are stored at room temperature.

Packaging– Before packaging fruits are classified in different grades. ‘A’ grade is given for excellent quality. Fiber and wooden made boxes are used for packaging.

Transporting

Different vehicle can be used for transporting. Transporting should be done in mass quantity to minimize the extra expense.

Problems

  • Flowering and fruiting time is long for seed born plants.
  • Alternate bearering is a major problem.



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1. Author and Content Writer. 2. Agriculture Consultant and Farmer's Trainer. 3. Agriculture Entrepreneur.
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