Fish Farming:: Methods Of Fish Farming || Low Cost Fish Farming || Governmental Schemes

A Fish Farm

SUMMARY: Fishery is a lucrative farming business idea which can be adopted by the small and big farmers. Fish can be reared both in natural and artificial ways. Artificial fish farming is more costly than the fish farming activity in natural condition.

Per unit area production is more in controlled situation. The fish farming business can also be initiated with the help of governmental schemes.



We will divide this article into three parts

  1. Fish Farming.
  2. Low Cost Fish Farming.
  3. Governmental Schemes

Introduction : Fish Farming

A Pond Protected with Nylon Wire Mesh

The science of fish culture or fish farming is known as fishery. It is a type of aquaculture.

The fish farming business does not require any type of licence. Although commercial production of some endangered species may be prohibited in certain country or region.

For Example– the culture and the commercial production of hybrid cat fish, known as hybrid magur (mangur), is prohibited in India.

Fish can be reared in pond, well, reservoir or any other artificial water tank.

Basic requirements of fish farming are:

  1. Investment
    • Investment in pond construction, water tank etc.: Two types of ponds can be constructed- 1. Raw pond. 2. Solid Pond. Construction of fish pond is very costly.
    • Investment in fish food: It is daily need for fish in open pond fish farming.
  2. Pond, Water Tank, Water Holding Structures
    • Pond: Raw and sold ponds.
    • Water Tank: Small tanks made of concrete and steel sheet, Plastic tanks.
    • Other Structure: Tarpaulin fish tank.
  3. Water Source
    • Bore wells.
    • Canals.
    • Reservoirs.
    • Ring wells.
    • Near by Rivers.
  4. Training
    • Training is not compulsory but it is very helpful in commercial fish farming. Fish culture in artificial water tanks like tarpaulin tank requires training.

Importance of fish farming

To over come problem related to farm labours

Other farming businesses such as dairy farming, vegetable production, poultry farming etc. require farm workers or labours to manage the farm all the day. Nowadays it is difficult to retain farm labours.

In fish-farming-business labours are needed at the time of farm setting. After the establishment of farm only one to two person can manage daily activities of the farm.

Can Be a Part of Watershed Development Programme

A vast area selected for the fish farming programme will see the construction of many water holding bodies. Seasonal rain from the sky can be stored easily in these ponds. This will help to increase water level in soil profile.

Types of Fish Farming

Basically, fish farming is of two types. These are:

Fish Farming in Fresh Water

  1. Fresh Water Fish Farming = Fresh Water Aquaculture.
  2. Marine Aquaculture = Brackish Water Aquaculture.

Resources of Fresh Water

  1. Pond.
  2. Lake (some lakes are a large natural body of salt water).
  3. River dams.
  4. Reservoir.
  5. Canals.
  6. Seasonal water catchment areas.
  7. Tanks.

This type of fish farming is practiced in limited space. Although fish are not reared under controlled condition, if reared adopting any of the listed water resource (from 1 to 6).

All species can not be reared in fresh water. Only, non-brackish water species are suitable. The fish species should be fast growing. Commercial sizes of fish are 250 gm, 500 gm and 1000 gm, and it should be achieved within 4 months. .

The list of fresh water species of fishes is as follows:

  1. Tilapia.
  2. Rohu.
  3. Carp.
    • Common carp.
    • Grass carp.
    • Silver carp.

Marine Fish Culture

Resources of Brackish Water

  1. Sea.
  2. Lake (Salt water lake).
  3. Artificial Salt Water Tanks.

This type of fish farming is practiced in a selected area in seas (using large steel cage and mesh). Although fish are not reared under controlled condition, if done in any of the listed water resource (from 1 to 2).

Fresh water fish species can not be reared in brackish water. They will die instantly. Only brackish water species are suitable. These fish can be purchased and reared inside an artificial tank under controlled condition.

List of Brackish Water Species of Fishes is as follows:

  1. Black bullhead.
  2. Diplomystidae.
  3. Black drum.
  4. Blue fish.
  5. Atlantic croaker.

Problems in Fish Farming

  1. Fish spawn
  2. Fish disease.
  3. Predators

Problem with Fish Spawn

Fish spawn should be purchased from an authentic place. Spawn sold by the middlemen is of low quality. It has no quality standard. Growth and development of the spawn is not up to standards.

Diseases in Fishery

A fish farmer has to tackle with the following diseases:

  • Disease caused by the virus.
  • Disease caused by the bacteria.
  • Disease caused by the fungus.

Identification, Treatment and the Prevention of the disease is required.


  1. Predators in fish farming e. g., frog, water snake.
  2. Ariel predators e. g., birds like Heron, Duck, Eagle etc.

Artificial tanks and small ponds can be covered with shadenet to protect the fish from ariel predators. Water predators should be killed before releasing fingerlings.

Methods of Fish Farming

  1. Artificial Fish Farming.
  2. Fish Farming in Natural Water Resources.
  3. Paddy-cum-Fish Farming.
  4. Low Cost Fish Farming.


Fast growing commercial species of fish can be reared in seasonal water catchment bodies such as big ponds.

It can be seasonal lake or other water reservoirs.

Paddy C_m Fish Farming

It is practiced in paddy field forming ditches and canals in pady field.

It is a fish farming technique in low lying paddy fields in rainfed condition.

Group Invest

Members of Self Help Group ke contribute to undertake fish farming. Their small contribution can create big model of a business.

Bioflock with one time investment

Required structure

  1. Tarpaulin tanks.
  2. Steel sheet tanks.
  3. Cement tanks with coating

The principles of bioflock fish farming are:

  1. Fish farming under controlled condition.
  2. Development of bioflock.
  3. Per unit area maximum production.
  4. Efficient work management.

Through Governmental Schemes

It is also low cost way of undertaking fish farming venture.


An individual can avail the benefit of the scheme. Farmers should contact with field officers. The related department is- department of fisheries. Branches of this department are established at,

  1. Block Level (Field work).
  2. District Level (Head Office ).
  3. State Level (Directorate).

Self Help Group

There are many scheme made by governments for the group of people.


  1. Aquaculture: Aquaculture is rearing of aquatic animals e. g., Snails, Ornamental Fishes, Crustaceans and the cultivation of aquatics ferns.
  2. Magur: Magur is a species of fish. It is a catfish.
  3. Rainfed Condition: Seasonal rain based cultivation practice.
  4. Self Help Group: Self Help Group or SHG is an organization of more than 10-20 people. They contribute, work and grow together.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is fresh water in fish farming?

Ans.– Fresh water is any type of water which is drinkable. Dusty or garbage mixed water will be considered as fresh water in fish farming.

Video Clip

Clip 01

Cat Fish

Clip 02

Commercial Carp Production

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