Subject– Fish Farming, Sustainable Fish Farming Practices, Guide For Rice-cum-Fish Farming, Fish-cum-Agriculture, Advantages of Rice-cum-Fish Farming, /Paddy cum-Fish Farming Thesis, Review and Literature.
|1.1||What is Paddy-cum-Fish farming?|
|1.2||Why Paddy-cum-Fish farming?|
|1.3||Ideal location for Paddy-cum-Fishfarming|
|1.3.2||Availability of water|
|2.1||Rice plot without water channel|
|2.2||Rice plot with water channel|
|2.2.1||Water channel around the paddy crop|
|2.2.2||Water channel according to the slope of plot|
|2.2.3||Water channel on the middle of rice plot|
|2.2.4||Pits and channels|
|3.1||Selection of the species of fish|
|3.2||Releasing the seed|
1.1 What is Paddy-cum-Fish Farming?
Paddy-cum-Fish farming or Rice-cum-Fish culture is a technique of rearing of fish in natural condition along with rice plant. It is an integrated system of farming. This system of fish culture is mainly practiced in rice growing countries like India, Bangladesh, China, Indonasia etc.
In India it is practiced in small extent in some rice growing states e. g., Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh etc.
1.2 Why Paddy-cum-Fish Farming?
There are different reasons,
- Lack of land– lack of land for a permanent pond is the cause of adopting this integrated farming system.
- Beneficial ecosystem– In this system rice benefits fish, in return rice is benefitted by the fish. Insect attacking is eaten by the fish and the ammonia present in rice field is utilised by the rice plants which is lethal to fish.
- To earn extra income– Rearing of fish with rice in paddy field doesn’t affect the total production of rice. Making channels around the rice works as small and natural pond for the fish. Farmers get some good amount of money after harvesting paddy and rice.
- High Cost– Advanced fish farming structures are very costly. Fish farming in paddy field requires very low investment. It includes labour charge for making channels around the rice plants.
|S. No.||Structure||Area||Cost in INR|
|1.||Open pond||1 acre||2.00 lakh- 2.5 lakh|
|2.||Cement Fish Tank||4 metre (Round tank with radius of 2 metre)||10 – 20 thousands|
|3.||Tarpaulin Tanks||4 metre (Round tank with radius of 2 metre)||20 – 25 thousands with 700 – 750 GSM tarpaulin sheet.|
|4.||Water Channel in rice field||Width- 1 metre. |
Depth- 1.5 feet
|2.5 – 5 thousand for making channels|
1.3 Ideal Location for Paddy-cum-Fish Farming
Fish culture along with rice crop is not possible in every plot. For example, fish in the upland rice field can not survive without water. Fish requires at least 4 months to attain marketable size. This is possible when rice field able to hold or retain water for up to 4 months. Some ideal conditions for fish farming in rice plot are:
Upland area is not suitable for Rice-cum-Fish culture. Rice plot should be low land area which can become a temporary water catchment area for 4-5 months.
1.3.2 Availability of Water
- Long spell of rain– In country like India, season of rain is 3-4 month long . Many low land rice field are able to hold water from July to November. Here, additional water source like well and bore well are very helpful till harvesting.
- Region of continuous rain– rice growing country situated at equatorial region is an ideal place of Paddy-cum-Fish farming.
- Availability of bore well– Farmers can fill rice fields full of water 365 days if active bore well is available.
- Availability of reserviors– getting water connection from a reservior for the crop field is a very good option.
- Availability of canal– Evergreen canals are very good source of continuous fresh water. It is cheap and the water availability is unlimited.
2.1 Rice plot without water channel
Rice plot in low land area can be converted in a temporary pond with rice plant transplanted on it. Rice plants are planted at equidistace line making space for the fish. However, long dry spell can cause problem. In this method entire filed is covered with rice plant except some vacant place.
2.2 Rice plot with water channel
2.2.1 Water channel around the paddy crop
- The Channel around the paddy crop is made according to the field.
- Width can be adjusted.
- Depth should be 1.5 – 3 feet. 1.5 feet for narrow channel and 3 feet for wide channel.
2.2.2 Water Channel according to the slope of plot
Channel can be made in one side of plot. Long and wide channel should be made toward down the slope.
2.2.3 Water channel on the middle of rice plot
2.2.4 Pit and channels
3.1 Selection of the species of fish
All species of fish are not suitable in this system. Some species of fish have been given in the table.
|Common name||Scientific name|
|2.||Sighi (sting cat fish)||Heteropneustes fossils|
|3.||Hybrid mangur||Clarias batrachus|
|5.||Common carp||Cyprinus carpio|
3.2 Releasing the seed
Size of fish seed– fingerlings.
Fingerlings should be released after the transplanting of rice plant in the field.
- Avoid the application of insecticides.
- Protect the field from predators.
- Manage shade to avoid the rise of temperature in water channels.
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- NHM: National Horticulture Mission
- PAT: Pre Agriculture Test