STEPS IN ORGANIC FARMING OF VEGETABLE CROPS

Organic Farming is little or no use of chemicals such as insecticide, weedicide, fungicide and others in cultivation of vegetable crops. Steps in Organic Farming are followed by farmers for the production of quality food. Organic farming is done by farmers and researchers.

CATEGORY: Informational and Educational. Post for farmers and Students.

This is an educational and informational post. It will help students and will guide farmers in farming.

OBJECTIVES

  1. To know about organic farming.
  2. To know about materials and steps involved in chemical free cultivation.
  3. To know about the future scope of organic farming.
  4. To know about marketing of organic farming.

INDEX

S. NO.HEADINGS/SUBHEADINGS
1.INTRODUCTION
2.IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC FARMING
3.FUTURE OF ORGANIC FARMING
4.STEPS IN ORGANIC FARMING
5. ORGANIC FARMING UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT
6.PROBLEMS IN ORGANIC FARMING
7.EXPLANATION OF RELATED WORDS

1. INTRODUCTION

  • What is Organic Farming?
  • Concept Behind Organic Farming.
  • Area of Organic Farming.

1.1 What is Organic Farming?

Organic farming is a type of farming in agriculture and horticulture. In organic farming chemicals used in the cultivation of field and vegetable crops are gradually replaced by organic matters e.g., organic fertilizers, organic or bio-pesticides.

It is also important that organic matter should be free from chemicals.

The method and materials in organic farming is different from inorganic farming.

1.2 Concept Behind Organic Farming

  • Inorganic farming is known for high production.
  • Quality of food produced by inorganic method is harmful to health in some extent.
  • It is necessary to replace excess amount of chemicals used in cultivation of crops.
  • Quality of food can be improved by using organic matters in farming.
  • It is eco friendly which benefits human health.

1.3 Area of Organic Farming

Organic farming is practiced by less number of farmers in the world. It is practiced by the agriculture researchers in research centres during academic sessions. Area of organic farming is very rare in village areas. It is mostly done by advance and educated farmers considering market potential.

It is a very important farming technique of developed countries like European, American and Australian countries. Farmers of developing and under developed countries like India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Ethiopia etc., prefer inorganic farming to get more production from current crop to fulfill the need of food demand. For example- cultivation of rice crop by organic farming id very difficult because of low production. It can create scarcity of food in country whose major population depends on food like rice.

2. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC FARMING

  • Eco Friendly Activity: Organic farming is eco friendly. Chemicals used in farming affect surrounding ecosystem e.g., water sources, soil, air and beneficial insects. A selective chemical which is beneficial to a particular crop can be harmful for another species. Organic matters are very eco friendly. Organic matters are beneficial for microorganism and ecosystem.
  • Human Health: Chemicals used in farming can reach inside human body by ecosystem. It can be checked By use of organic matters in farming.
  • Market Potential: Market potential is excellent. It can be seen selling at shopping mall and supermarkets. Price of these products is higher than the other products such as vegetables.
  • Natural Taste: Organically produced vegetable and cereals give natural taste. It is natural and free of chemicals.
  • Future Scope
    • It is a very good option of self employments.
    • Demand will increase in future.
    • It may be promoted by government in future.
    • Possibility of a good subsidy by government in future.
  • Less Competitive: It is less competitive.

3. FUTURE OF ORGANIC FARMING

Use of chemicals in cultivation of important field and vegetable crops is increasing each year. We are witnessing many unwanted situations regarding chemical farming (farming using chemical pesticides).

Many countries have banned some pesticides which are harmful both for ecosystem and human health. For example- use of B. H. C. and Endosulfan is restricted in India. Replacement of chemicals with other options is the demand of upcoming years.

Also Read: Ideas of agribusiness.

4. STEPS IN ORGANIC FARMING

4.1 Materials

  • Materials used in insect control.
  • Materials used in weed control.
  • Materials used disease control.
  • Materials used in plant growth control.

4.1.1 Materials used in insect control

4.1.1.1 Living agents: Living agents are used biological pest control. They can be a parasite, predator or disease causing microorganism.

Example:

  • Predators: Predator devour harmful insects as food. Lacewing and wasps are dreadful predators. Ladybird Beetle is a predator of green aphid.
  • Parasite: Two types are parasites are used-
    1. Egg parasites.
    2. Parasites of insect larvae.
  • Disease causing microorganism: Disease causing micro-organisms like trichoderma viride is deadly for many harmful fungus.
  • Colonizing microorganism: Mycorrhiza.

4.1.1.2 Non living agents: Non living agents are used in other crop management activities. Non living agents are as follows:

Also Read: Cocopeat production

4.1.2 Materials/method used in weed control

4.1.2.1 Hand weeding: It is a simple way of weed control.

4.1.2.2 Biological agents: For example Congress grass can be controlled by releasing Zygogramma bicolorata.

4.1.3 Materials used disease control

4.1.3.1 Biological agents: Example application of Trichoderma spp.

4.1.3.2 Non biological: Exposing soil to direct sun rays, heat treatment in protected cultivation etc.

4.1.3.4 Alteration in crop sowing time.

4.1.4 Materials used in plant growth and development

Such as Panchgavya.

4.2 STEPS

Following steps favour organic farming

  • Selection of site.
  • Land preparation.
  • Selection of crop and variety.
  • Sowing/Planting
  • Manuring.
  • Weed management.
  • Insect management.
  • Disease management.
  • Post harvest activity.

4.2.1 Selection of site

Site should be free pollution. It includes chemical free water resources and soil.

4.2.2 Land preparation

Land preparation is similar to general land preparation. Deep ploughing is beneficial. Deep ploughing expose insect egg and larvae to direct sun light.

4.2.3 Selection of crop and variety.

Selection of variety is very important process in organic farming.

  • Avoid cultivation of crop species which is susceptible to a particular species of insect which is identical to that region.
  • Select resistant varieties of crops against insect-pests.

4.2.4 Sowing/Planting

Time of sowing and planting can be alter to reduce crop damage done by pests.

4.2.5 Manuring

Following manure should be applied:

  • FYM: 20 to 25 ton per hectare.
  • Vermicompost: 20 – 25 ton per hectare.
  • Agri waste: 15 – 20 ton per hectare.
  • Green manure: 20 -25 ton per hectare.

4.2.6 Weed management

Hand weeding: Hand weeding is ideal for small farm. 20 -22 labours are sufficient for weeding in 30 acre of farm.

Mulching: Mulching is very helpful in weed control. It does not let weed to grow and spread in excess amount. Straw can be used as bio-mulch. Plastic mulches are also available.

4.2.7 Insect management

Mulching: Specially designed plastic mulches are able to distract different species of insects.

Use of lures: Semiochemicals are used in insect surveillance and management. Hellilure is used to attract male of bollworm of cotton.

Catch crop: Catch crops attract insect which damage main crop. Cotton is a catch crop grown around bhindi crop.

Light traps: Light traps are used during night. It can be made by locally available materials. Simple lamp and kerosene can be used in village areas.

4.2.8 Disease management

Biological measures: Use of trichoderma is an example of biological disease management.

Change in sowing time: Early blight of potato can be avoided by the late sowing of potato.

4.2.9 Post harvest activity

Organic farming is not only sowing and harvesting of crop products. It should be maintained till selling in market. Use of chemical after harvesting is prohibited.

Management of post harvest Store Grain Pests is important.

5. ORGANIC FARMING UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT

This paragraph will be updated further

  • Organic farming inside greenhouse.
  • Organic farming inside polyhouse.
  • Organic farming inside shade net.

Protected cultivation makes organic farming stable. It is possible to produce organic products in all season.

6. PROBLEMS IN ORGANIC FARMING

  • Less Production
  • Pest management

Less Production: Crop production is many time higher than the organic farming. It is a fact which cant be denied.

Pest Management: Rapid pest control is difficult. Some extent of damage is inevitable.

Fewer Consumer: Currently, the number of consumer of organic product is very less. It is due to awareness.

7. EXPLANATION OF RELATED WORDS

7.1 Bio-pesticides.

Bio-pesticide is an organic compound in different formulation which contains beneficial living microorganism.

7.2 Eco friendly

Any substance which is beneficial to environment or which does not affect environment.

7.3 Beneficial insects

Beneficial insect are known as farmers friend. Honey bee which helps in pollination is a beneficial insect.

7.4 Post harvest activity

Post harvest activity includes following steps:

  • Collection after harvesting.
  • Grading.
  • Storage.
  • Transportation.
  • Value addition.
  • Marketing.

Also Read: Lawn making

-By Harish Manik





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admin
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1. Author and Content Writer. 2. Agriculture Consultant and Farmer's Trainer. 3. Agriculture Entrepreneur.
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