‘T’-budding in Ber, Rose and Others Fruit and Flower Plants


Main Heading: ‘T’-budding in Ber, Rose and Others Fruit and Flower Plants: Procedure with Images/Pictures

Introduction: ‘T’-budding

It is one of the very important method of grafting. The method is called or known as ‘T’- Budding due to the root stock having ‘T Shaped Cut’ during budding operation. This is a type of vegetative propagation. This is also known as Shield Budding.

Being a type of budding, ‘T’-budding is a form of grafting in which only a desired bud is inserted in the root stock.

This post describes procedure of T-budding in ber. The procedure remains same for other plant species.

TypeBudding, grafting
PlantFruit plants, flower plants
Practiced Byprofessionals, amateur gardeners

Adopted for……

This method of plant propagation is adopted for both the flower and fruit plants.

Flower Plants

This method of propagation is commonly adopted for flowers of the family rosaceae, example is rose.

Fruit Plants

T – budding is commonly practiced in ber, apple, citrus, apple, pear, peach, almond etc.

Ideal Time

This method of budding generally performed during spring and rainy season. As soon as the bark starts sleeping both on the stock and scion, this is considered to be optimum time for budding. During this time the cambium responsible for union is active and can be exposed easily.

Ideal time for T – budding depends on species of fruit and flower plants considering success rate.

Also Read: Right Time for Defoliation in Mango, Mango Grafting.

Table 01: Fruit Plants

S.N.PlantTime of Budding
1.BerJune, July
2.CitrusMarch-April, August-September

Table 02: Flower Plants

S. N.Flower PlantTime of Budding
1.Rose*North Plains: Nov.-Dec.
*Low Hills: Dec.-Feb.
*Mid Hills: Jan.-Mar.
*High Hills: Feb.-April.

Required Materials and Equipments

Required materials and equipments are as follows:

  • Root Stock.
  • Scion or Bud.
  • Budding Knife.
  • Grafting Tape.

Root Stock

Root Stocks are raised in nursery beds. These can be raised on both the temporary and permanent structure. Time of sowing the planting materials of different fruit/flower plants depends on species.

Scion Bud

Scion bud is most important thing in budding. A scion bud consists following parts:

  • Bark: It includes bark cambium.
  • Piece of wood: It includes cork cambium.
  • A plumpy bud: It includes growing bud.

Budding Knife

Budding knife is a very sharp as well as a clean object. These types of knife is specially made for budding purpose. These are made of stainless steel.

Grafting Tape

Transparent grafting tapes are used. It is stretchable and holds the budded portion effectively.

Also Read: Cashew Nut Propagation

Selection of Root Stock and Scion

Selection of Root Stock

  • Healthy Root Stock: A plant raised as root stock should be healthy. It should be free from diseases.
  • Vigorous Root Stock: Root Stock Should be vigorous.
  • Thickness: Thick should be equal to pencil.
  • Growth: Root stock with active vegetative growth.

Selection of Scion Bud

  • Healthy Bud: Bud should be free from disease and pest attack.
  • Vigorous Bud: It should be as vigorous as it could be.
  • Size: Bud should be plumpy. These type of buds grow very fast once properly attached to root stock.
  • The mother plant should be true to type.
  • Selection of round bud-wood gives best result.
  • Don’t select water sprouts or long shoots.
  • Don’t select which bear light flowers/fruits or poor quality fruits.


Also Read: Side Grafting in Mango

Step 01: Removal of Leaves and Thorns: Remove the leaves and thorns around the place where bid is to be inserted.

Step 02: First cut would be horizontal about 1/3rd the distance around the stock. Make a T – Shaped cut on root stock as shown in picture. It is performed just 15 – 20 cm above soil surface.


Step 03: The second cut is a vertical cut about 2 – 3 cm in length toward down from the middle of the horizontal cut.


Step 04: Open the cut as shown in picture. The flaps of the bark are eased with the ivory end of the budding knife.


Step 05: Cut out the bud from but stick as shown in picture. For this, remove the bud from the bud stick. To remove the shield of bark a slicing cut is given at a point on the bud stick about 1.25 cm below the bud. The bark should have bud.

The cut is continued to underneath about 2.5 cm above the bud. Now, give a second horizontal cut about 1.25 to 2 cm above the bud to remove it from stick. The shield with very thin layer of wood is removed from bud stick.

Step 06: Insert the bud, fit it inside bark then tie it as shown in picture. To do this push the shield under the two raised flaps of bark until its upper horizontal cut matches the same cut on the stock.

Now wrap the union with polythene strip, recommend for it. Wrap it firmly.

Pros and Cons of the Method


  • Easy and Cheap Method: It is easy and cheap method.The method is adopted in commercial plant propagation program for different species of fruit and flower plants.
  • Fast growth: Growth of bud is fast as compared to other method such as grafting in mango.
  • Less Number of Mother Plants: Many buds can be obtained from a single mother plant. A 15 – 20 cm bud stick consists more than 3 – 4 vigorous buds.
  • Budding operation takes less time. The method is very easy and fast.
  • The bud wood is greatly economised as compared to grafting.


  1. Suitability: It is not suitable for some very important tropical and subtropical fruit plants such as mango and guava.
  2. External Factors: Rate of bud rot and drying is very fast in case of heavy rain and direct sunlight during rainy and summer season, respectively.

Dos and Don’ts


  • Do it with clean hand and equipments.
  • Save it from the scorching sunlight.
  • Save it from heavy rain.
  • Cut the bud stick while actual budding operation.
  • Keep the bud sticks in moist funny bags if budding site if far from mother stocks.


  • Never damage bud before, during or after budding operation.
  • Don’t damage the bark of root stock.
  • During the selection of bu don’t prefer angular bud-wood.

Others Methods of Propagation

Sexual Propagation

  • Seed.

Asexual Propagation

  • Leaf cuttings.
  • Stem cuttings.
  • Root Cutting.
  • Divisions.
  • Suckers.
  • Tissue culture.

Explanation of Post Related Words

Vegetative Propagation

Vegetative Propagation is a type of propagation in which different vegetative parts of a plant/crop are used as propagation materials such as leaf. It is different from Non-vegetative propagation in which seeds of different plant species are used as planting material.

Water Sprouts

Water sprouts are new growth or new shoots emerged from very old trunk or branches.

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 01. How many buds can be inserted in a single root stock?

Answer: Only one bud should be inserted in a single root stock. Inserting more than one bud in a single root stock is not recommended.

Question 02: What are the top reasons of the failure of T – budding?

Answer: Heavy rain, direct sun light, infection etc.

Question 03: On an average how many days it takes to thrive a budded plant?

Answer: Generally, it takes 2 – 3 weeks.

Question 04: Do we need any chemical for T – budding?

Answer: No, no chemical is required for T-budding.

Question 05: Should we use simple plastic or other tape for budding?

Answer: We should always use grafting tape, recommend for grafting/budding.

Question 06: Should we use vegetable knife for budding operation?

Answer: Yes, but with sharp and clean knife.

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10 months ago

Thanks once again sir for sharing this. I was trying To budding in ber from last 15 days.

10 months ago
Reply to  Dev

Thanks! Once again.