There is a wild species of Cashew (Cashew nut) or ‘Kaju (Kaaju, काजू) in Hindi’, Known as Wild Cashew Nut or Bhelwan (भेलवां, in local Indian language) and scientifically known as Semecarpus anacardium, is a flowering and fruiting tropical and sub-tropical plant/tree.
|Common Name||Wild Cashew Nut|
|English Name||Wild Cashew Nut|
|Hindi Name||Jungli Kaaju (Kaju) or जंगली काजू|
|Other Names||Bhelwan, bhelwa or भेलवां in local Indian languages, e.g., some parts of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Odisha|
|Scientific Name||Semecarpus anacardium|
|2n||Various: 24, 30, 40, 42|
|Type||Flowering and Fruiting tree|
|7.||Flowering and Fruiting|
|8.||Comparison Between Cultivated and Wild Species of Cashew|
The name काजू or kaaju is derived from the Portuguese name Caju which in turn originated from Acaju, the name given to cashew by the tapi Indians of Brazil.
The plant takes many years to become a big tree. It is an evergreen tree.
Semecarpus anacardium is Subcontinental species while Anacarium excelsum is species from Tropical America.
Related Species (Ref. 01)
A. occidentale, A. microcarpum, A. tenuifolium, A. rondonianum, A. negrense, A. kuhlmannianum, A. amilcarianum, A. parvifolium, A. corymbosum, A. microsepalum, A. sruceanum, A. rhinocarpus, A. nanum, A. mediterraneum, A. humile, A. giganteum, A. encardium, A. curatellaefolium, A. brasiliense, A. orthonianum, A. phemilium, A. macrocarpa.
Other Plant/Tree With Same Family
|Common Name||Scientific Name|
|Cultivated Cashew||Anacardium occidentale|
|Hog Plum||Spondias mombin|
|Pepper Tree||Schinus molle|
|Mastic Tree||Pistacia lentiscus|
|Pistacia Nut||Pistacia vera|
|Poison Ivy||Toxicodendron radicans|
|Smoke Tree||Cotinus spp.|
The tree is commonly found in the tropical and sub-tropical jungles (forest) of India. And, Out side Asia, the other wild species such as anacardium excelsum is also found in some countries of South America such as Ecuador.
Tree Trunk: The tree trunk is strong and rarely branched. The strait tree trunk have many branches over the main trunk. It is rough in appearance. Twigs are fragile, and can easily be broken.
The leaves are simple, alternate, oval-shaped. The length of the biggest leave ranges from 25 – 35 cm long. And, the width of the broadest leaf is 15 – 20 cm.
*The flowers are produced in a panicle up to 25 -35 cm long.
*Flowers are small. The colour of the flower is pale green to white.
*Later on flowers turn pink.
*The fruit is 3 – 3.5 cm (1.18 – 1.37 inch) long. It is the length of whole fruit including nut and apple.
*The fruit is a drupe.
*Ripening occurs in March to May. In middle India, ripening can be seen from early January.
It is closely related with the cultivated species of cashew or cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale).
The fruits (both the nut and the apple) is highly toxic to humans. Although, it can be eaten after roasting.
Propagation can be done by seed.
7. Flowering and Fruiting
Flowering: Sept. – October to February.
Fruiting: Fruiting can be seen from December.
Pollination: Pollination is done by…
8. Comparison Between Cultivated and Wild Species of Cashew
|Comparison Points||Wild Cashew||Cultivated Cashew|
|Apple Size||Small||Too much bigger than wild species|
|Resistant to insect-pests||Resistant||Vulnerable|
|Cultivation||Not cultivated||Cultivated on commercial scale|
9. Image Gallery
Image 9.1: Unripe Fruits With Leaves
Image 9.2: Ripe and Unripe Fruits With Leaves
Also Read: Cultivation Practice for African Marigold
Last Updated: 17-04-2021
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